Vocabulary

af   prep. +datof
afar   prep. +accafter
afardags   n. m.Athe next day
afargaggan   v. VII redupto follow
afdáubnan   v. IV weak  intrto become deaf
afdrugkja   n. m.Ndrunkard
afguþs   adjgodless
afletan   v. VII red.abl.to dismiss
afstass   n. f.Ia standing of
afta   advbehind
aftra   advback
aftuma   adj. w.ajthe following
aftumists   adjlast
-aga   suff(forming adjectives indicating status or mood
aggwus   adjnarrow
agis   n. n.Afright
aglo   n. f.Nanguish
agluba   advhardly
aglus   adj  +dathard
agustus   n. m.UAugust
-aha   suff= -aga-
aha   n. m.Nmind
ahma   n. m.Nspirit
ahtáu   num. aj.ieight
ahtáutehund   numeighty
ahtuda   adj. w.ajeighth
aƕa   n. f.Oriver
áigan   v. pret-pres. VI abl.  +accto have
áigum   v. pret.pres.  +accwe have
áih   v. pret.pres.  +accI have
áihan   v. pret-pres. VI abl.  +acc= áigan
áihtron   v. II weakto beg for
áihts   n. f.Iproperty
aíƕs   n. m.Ahorse
áinaha   adj. w.ajonly
áinfalþs   adjonefold
-áini   suff= -eini-
áinlif   num. aj.ieleven
áins   num. 1one
áinshun   pron(+ ni) no one
áir   advsoon
áirinon   v. II weak  intrto be a messenger
aírminadags   n. m.AWednesday
aírþa   n. f.Oearth
aírþeins   adjearthly
áirus   n. m.Umessenger
aírzeis   adjastray
áistān   v. III weakto revere
áiþei   n. f.Nmother
áiþs   n. m.Aoath
aíþþáu   conjor
áiweins   adjeternal
áiws   n. m.Atime
ak   conjbut
akran   n. n.Afruit
akrs   n. m.Afield
alan   v. VI ablaut  intrto grow
alhs   n. f.Ctemple
alja   prep. +datexcept
aljar   advelsewhere
aljaþ   advelsewhere
aljis   adjother
alls   adj. s.ajall
alþeis   adjold
alþiza   adj. w.ajolder
ana   prep. +acconto
ana   prep. +daton
anaáukan   v. VII redupto add to
anabiudan   v. II ablautto bid
anabusns   n. f.Icommand
anaháitan   v. VII redup(+acc) to call on
analageins   n. f.Ia laying on
analáugns   adj. aj.ihidden
anaqiss   n. f.Iblasphemy
anasilān   v. III weak  intrto be silent
anasiuns   adj. aj.ivisible
anaþrafstjan   v. I weak  +accto comfort
anawaírþs   adjfuture
and   prep. +accalong
-and   suff(forming nomina agentis: bisitands
andahafts   n. f.Ianswer
andanahti   n. n.JAevening
andanems   adj. aj.ipleasant
andastaþjis   n. m.JAadversary
andáugi   n. n.JAface
andbahti   n. n.JAservice
andbindan   v. III ablautto loose
andeis   n. m.JAend
andhafjan   v. VI ablaut  +datto answer
andizuh   conjeither (used with aíththáu)
ansteigs   adj  +datgracious
ansts   n. f.Ifavor
anþar   adj. s.ajother
apreilis   n. m.SApril
arbáiþs   n. f.Iwork
arbi   n. n.JAheritage
arbinumja   n. m.Nheir
arbja   n. m.Nheir
arbjo   n. f.Nheiress
areinsdags   n. m.ATuesday
-arja   suff(forming nomina agentis from other nouns
arjan   v. I weakto plough/plow
armān   v. III weakto pity
arms   adjpoor
arms   n. m.Iarm
asanamenoþs   n. m.CAugust
asans   n. f.Iharvest
asilus   n. m.Uass
asilus   n. f.Ushe-ass
asneis   n. m.JAservant
-assu   suff(originally forming verbs such as laúhatjan
asts   n. m.Abranch
at   prep. +accat
ataþni   n. n.JAyear
atáugjan   v. I weakto show
atgaggan   v. VII redup  intrto go
atgiban   v. V ablautto give up
aþþan   conjbut
-atjan   suff(forming intensive verbs which fell together with causatives in class I weak conj.: laúhatjan
atlaþon   v. II weakto call
atta   n. m.Nfather
attekan   v. VII red.abl.  +datto touch
atwitáins   n. f.Iobservation
áudags   adjblessed
áugjan   v. I weakto show
aúhuma   adj. w.ajhigher
aúhumists   adjhighest
áuk   conjbut also
áukan   v. VII redupto add
aúktobaír   n. m.AOctober
aúrkeis   n. m.JAjug
aúrtigards   n. m.Igarden
áustramenoþs   n. m.CMarch
áuþida   n. f.Owilderness
áuþs   adj. aj.idesert
awiliudon   v. II weak  +datto thank
azgo   n. f.Ncinder
badi   n. n.JAbed
bagms   n. m.Atree
bái   num. 2both
baíran   v. IV ablaut  +accto bear
baírgan   v. IV ablaut  +datto hide
baírhtei   n. f.Nbrightness
baírhts   adjbright
báitraba   advbitterly
báitrei   n. f.Nbitterness
báitrs   adjbitter
balgs   n. m.Ibag
balþei   n. f.Nboldness
balwjan   v. I weak  +datto torment
bandja   n. m.Nprisoner
bandwa   n. f.Osign
barms   n. m.Ibosom
barn   n. n.Achild
barnisks   adjchildish
batists   adjbest
batiza   adj. w.ajbetter
bauan   v. III weak pret.to dwell
baúr   n. m.Ison
baúrgja   n. m.Ncitizen
baúrgs   n. f.Ccity
beidan   v. I ablautto await
bi   prep. +datby
biáuknan   v. IV weak  intrto become larger
bida   n. f.Orequest
bidjan   v. V ablautto ask
bigitan   v. V ablaut  +accto find
bileiban   v. I ablaut  intrto remain
binah   v. pret.pres.  intrit is permitted
birinnan   v. III ablautto run about
bisitands   n. m.NDneighbor
biudan   v. II ablautto offer
bleiþei   n. f.Nmercy
blinds   adjblind
bloma   n. m.Nflower
blotamenoþs   n. m.COctober
bloþ   n. n.Ablood
bnauān   v. III weakto rub
boka   n. f.O(sing) letter of the alphabet; (pl) book
bokareis   n. m.JAscribe
bota   n. f.Oadvantage
briggan   v. I weak  +accto bring
brikan   v. IV ablautto break
brinnan   v. III ablaut  intrto burn
brinno   n. f.Nfever
broþar   n. m.Rbrother
brūkjan   v. I weak  +gento use
brūks   adj. aj.i  +datuseful
brunjo   n. f.Nbreastplate
brunna   n. m.Nwell
brusts   n. f.Cbreast
brūþfaþs   n. m.Ibridegroom
bugjan   v. I weakto buy
dags   n. m.Aday
daíkaímbaír   n. m.ADecember
dáiljan   v. I weakto deal out
dáils   n. f.Iportion
daíwtaíradags   n. m.AMonday
dalaþ   advdown
dalaþa   advbelow
dáug   v. pret.pres.it is good for
daúhtar   n. f.Rdaughter
dáupeins   n. f.Ibaptism
daúr   n. n.Adoor
dáuþjan   v. I weakto put to death
dáuþus   n. m.Udeath
deþs   n. f.Ideed
disdáiljan   v. I weakto share
diswiss   n. f.Ideparture
diups   adjdeep
dius   n. n.Awild beast
diwan   v. V ablaut  intrto die
domjan   v. I weak  +accto judge (+ optional double accusative)
dráibjan   v. I weakto drive
dreiban   v. I ablautto drive
drigkan   v. III ablautto drink
driuso   n. f.Nslope
drus   n. m.Ifall
du   prep. +datto
duginnan   v. III ablautto begin
dulþs   n. f.Cfeast (recurring)
durinnan   v. III ablautto run to
-dūþi   suff(equivalent to -tude
dwalimon   v. II weak  intrto be foolish
dwals   adjfoolish
ei   conjthat
-eiga   suff(forming adj.: anda-nemeigs
-ein   suff(forming f. abstract nouns from adjectives: áudagei
-eina   suff(equivalent to the -en in earthen
eisarn   n. n.Airon
fadar   n. m.Rfather
fadreins   n. f.Ifamily
faginon   v. II weak  intrto rejoice
fagrs   adjbeautiful
fāhan   v. VII redupto seize
faheþs   n. f.Ijoy
faíbruareis   n. m.JAFebruary
faíhu   n. n.Ucattle
faírguni   n. n.JAmountain
faírƕus   n. m.Uworld
faírneis   adjold
faírraþro   advfrom afar
faírweitjan   v. I weakto gaze around
faírweitl   n. n.Aspectacle
falþan   v. VII redupto fold
-falþs   adj-fold
fara   n. f.Otraffic
faran   v. VI ablaut  intrto fare
fastān   v. III weak  intrto fast
fastubni   n. n.JAfasting
faúr   prep. +accfor
faúra   advbefore
faúra   prep. +datbefore
faúragagga   n. m.Nsteward
faúragaggan   v. VII redupto go before
faúrahāh   n. n.Acurtain
faúramaþleis   n. m.JAruler
faúrbiudan   v. II ablautto forbid
faúrhāh   n. sn= faúra-hâh
faúrhtjan   v. I weakto fear
faúrstasseis   n. m.JAchief
faúrþizei   conjbefore that
fáus   adj. aj.ausmall
fera   n. f.Oregion
fidurfalþs   numfourfold
fidwor   num. aj.ifour
fidwor tigjus   num  +genforty
fidwortaíhun   num. aj.ifourteen
fijān   v. III weakto hate
fijands   n. m.NDenemy
fijaþwa   n. f.Ohatred
filhan   v. III ablautto hide
filu   adj. snu!j  +gengreat
fimf   num. aj.ifive
fimf tigjus   num  +genfifty
fimfta   adj. w.ajfifth
fimftaíhun   num. aj.ififteen
fimftataíhunda   adj. w.ajfifteenth
finþan   v. III ablaut  +accto find
fiskja   n. m.Nfisher
fiskon   v. II weakto fish
fisks   n. m.Afish
fodeins   n. f.Imeat
fodjan   v. I weakto feed
fon   n. mnfire
fotus   n. m.Ufoot
frabugjan   v. I weak  +datto sell
fragifts   n. f.Ia giving away
fraíhnan   v. V ablaut  +gento ask
fráisan   v. VII redupto tempt
fráistubni   n. f.JOtemptation
fráiw   n. n.Aseed
frakunnan   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +datto despise
fraliusan   v. II ablaut  +datto lose
fralusnan   v. IV weak  intrto perish
fralusts   n. f.Iloss
fram   prep. +datfrom
framaldrs   adjof great age
fraqiman   v. IV ablaut  +datto expend
fraqistnan   v. IV weak  intrto perish
fraþi   n. n.JAunderstanding
fraþjan   v. VI ablaut  +datto understand
fráuja   n. m.Nmaster
fráujadags   n. m.ASunday
fráujinon   v. II weak  intrto be lord or king
fraweit   n. n.Avengeance
freis   adj  +genfree
frijaþwa   n. f.Olove
frijon   v. II weakto love
frijondi   n. f.JOfriend
frijonds   n. m.NDfriend
frodei   n. f.Nunderstanding
froþs   adjwise
fruma   adj. w.ajthe former
frumists   adjfirst
fugls   n. m.Abird
fulgins   adjhidden
fullatojis   adjperfect
fulljan   v. I weak  +gento fill
fullnan   v. IV weak  +gento become full
fullo   n. f.Nfullness
fulls   adj. s.aj  +genfull
funisks   adjfiery
gaáiwiskon   v. II weakto ill-treat
gabatnan   v. IV weak  intrto profit
gabaúrþs   n. f.Ibirth
gabindan   v. III ablautto bind
gadaúrsan   v. pret-pres. III abl.to dare
gadáuþnan   v. IV weak  intrto die
gafáurs   adj. aj.iwell-behaved
gageigān   v. III weakto gain
gaggan   v. VII redup  intrto go
gahráinjan   v. I weak  +gento cleanse
gahugds   n. f.Ithought
gáidw   n. n.Awant
gaírnjan   v. I weak  +gento be fain or willing
gajuka   n. m.Ncompanion
gajuko   n. f.Nparable
gakunnan   v. pret-pres. III abl.to recognize
gakusts   n. f.Itest
galáubeins   n. f.Ifaith
galáubjan   v. I weakto believe
galeikon   v. II weakto liken
galeiks   adj  +datlike
galga   n. m.Ncross
gamáins   adj. aj.icommon
gameljan   v. I weakto write
gamotan   v. pret-pres. VI abl.to find room
gamotjan   v. I weak  +datto meet
gamunds   n. f.Irememberance
ganohs   adj. s.ajenough
gaqiunan   v. IV weak  intrto be made alive
gaqumþs   n. f.Iassembly
garaíhts   adjrighteous
garda   n. m.Nyard
garūni   n. n.JAconsultation
garuns   n. f.Imarketplace
gasinþja   n. m.Ncompanion
gaskafts   n. f.Icreation
gastaldan   v. VII redupto possess
gasts   n. m.Iguest
gataíran   v. IV ablaut  +acc/datto tear to pieces
gatamjan   v. I weakto tame
gataúra   n. m.Na tear
gataúrþs   n. f.Idestruction
gaþarbān   v. III weak  +gento suffer want
gaþaúrsnan   v. IV weak  intrto become dry
gaþláihan   v. VII redupto cherish
gatimrjo   n. f.Nbuilding
gatwo   n. f.Nstreet
gáumjan   v. I weak  +datto perceive
gáunon   v. II weakto lament
gáunoþus   n. m.Umourning
gáurs   adjsad
gawaírþi   n. n.JApeace
gawaknan   v. IV weak  intrto awake
gawaúrkjan   v. I weakto make
gawaúrstwa   n. m.Nfellow worker
gaweison   v. II weak  +gento visit
gawi   n. n.JAregion
gawiljis   adjwilling
giba   n. f.Ogift
giban   v. V ablautto give
gistradagis   advtomorrow
goljan   v. I weakto greet
goþs   adj  +datgood
graba   n. f.Oditch
gras   n. n.Agrass
gredags   adjhungry
gredon   v. II weak  intrto be greedy or hungry (impers. +acc of person)
gretan   v. VII red.abl.  intrto weep
groba   n. f.Oden
gudja   n. m.Npreist
gulþ   n. n.Agold
gulþeins   adjgolden
guma   n. m.Nman
Gutrazda   n. f.OGothic language
habān   v. III weakto have
hāhan   v. VII redupto hang
háifstjan   v. I weak  +accto strive
háifsts   n. f.Ifight
háilagamenoþs   n. m.CAugust
háiljan   v. I weak  +gento heal
háils   adjwhole
háims   n. f.Ivillage
haírdeis   n. m.JAshepherd
haírto   n. n.Nheart
haírus   n. m.Usword
háitan   v. VII redup  +accto call
háiþi   n. f.JOfield
háiti   n. f.JOorder
halbs   adj. s.ajhalf
haldan   v. VII redupto hold
halja   n. f.Ohell
hana   n. m.Nrooster
handugs   adjclever
handus   n. f.Uhand
hardiza   adj. w.ajharder
hardus   adjhard
harjis   n. m.JAarmy
hatān   v. III weakto hate
hatizon   v. II weakto be angry
háubiþ   n. n.Ahead
haúrds   n. f.Idoor
haúrn   n. n.Ahorn
haúrnja   n. m.Nhorn-blower
háusjan   v. I weakto hear
hawi   n. n.JAhay
hazjan   v. I weakto praise
her   advhere
heþjo   n. f.Nchamber
hidre   advhither
hilpan   v. III ablaut  +gento help
himins   n. m.Aheaven
hindana   prep. +genbehind
hindar   prep. +accbehind
hindarleiþan   v. I ablautto go behind
hindarweis   adj. aj.sdeceitful
hindumists   adjhindmost
his   pronthis (acc. hina
hiuhma   n. m.Ncrowd
hláifs   n. m.Aloaf
hláiw   n. n.Agrave
hleiduma   adj. w.ajon the left
hliftus   n. m.Uthief
hliuma   n. m.Nhearing
hlūtrs   adjpure
hnasqus   adjsoft
holon   v. II weakto treat with violence
horinon   v. II weakto commit adultery
hors   n. m.Aadulterer
hráins   adj. aj.iclean
hroþimenoþs   n. m.CFebruary
huggrjan   v. I weakto hunger (impers. +acc of person)
hūhrus   n. m.Uhunger
hulþs   adj  +datgracious
hunds   n. m.Adog
hups   n. m.Ihip
huzd   n. n.Atreasure
-ƕa   conjwhether (clitic)
ƕadre   advwhither
ƕáiteis   n. m.JAwheat
ƕáiwa   conjhow
ƕan   adv(interr) when?
ƕar   advwhere
ƕarbon   v. II weakto go about
ƕarjis   pronwho
ƕarjizuh   pron(indefinite) each
ƕas   pronwho
ƕashun   pron(indefinite
ƕaþar   pronwhich of two
ƕaþaruh   proneach of two
ƕaþro   advwhence
ƕazuh   pron(indef) each
ƕe   adv(interr) with what
ƕeila   n. f.Otime
ƕeits   adjwhite
ƕeláuþs   pron(interr) how great
ƕileiks   pronwhat sort of
ƕopan   v. VII redup  intrto boast
ibái   conjlest
ibnassus   n. m.Uevenness
ibns   adjeven
iddja   v  intr(preterite of gaggan) I went
idreigon   v. II weak  intrto repent
idweit   n. n.Areproach
iftuma   adj. w.ajnext
igqar   pron(poss) of you two
ik   pronI
ikei   pronI who... (relative)
im   v  intrI am
in   prep. +datin
in   prep. +genon account of
in   prep. +accin
inbrannjan   v. I weakto put in the fire
ingardja   adj. w.aj(noun equivalent) one of the same household
inmáideins   n. f.Ichange
inna   advwithin
innakunds   adjof the same household
innana   advwithin
innaþro   advfrom within
innuma   adj. w.ajthe inner
-inon   suff(originally forming verbs of vocation or social status
inuh   prep. +accwithout
is   v  intrthou art
is   pronhe
-iska   suff(equivalent to -ish; forming adj. denoting manner or quality: barnisks
ist   vis
ita   pronit
itan   v. V ablautto eat
  conjbut
-iþa   suff(forming f. abstr. n. from adj.: aggwitha
iup   advupwards
iupa   advabove
izei   pron(rel) who
izwar   pron(poss) your
ja   advyea
jabái   conjif
jah   conjand
jái   interj= ja
jáidre   adv= jáind
jáinar   advyonder
jáind   advthither
jáins   pron. s.ajthat
januareis   n. m.JAJanuary
jaþþe   conjand if
jer   n. n.Ayear
ju   advalready
juggs   adjyoung
jūhiza   adj. w.ajyounger
juk   n. n.Ayoke
julius   n. m.AJuly
junius   n. m.AJune
jus   pronye
jut   pronye two
jutei   pronye two who (relative)
juþan   advalready
juzei   pronye who (relative)
kalbo   n. f.Ncalf
kalds   adjcold
kara   n. f.Ocare
karkara   n. f.Oprison
karon   v. II weakto care for
káupatjan   v. I weakto buffet
káupon   v. II weakto traffic
kaúrn   n. n.Agrain
kaúrus   adjheavy
kilþei   n. f.Nwomb
kinnus   n. f.Ucheek
kiusan   v. II ablautto choose
kniu   n. n.Aknee
kukjan   v. I weak  +datto kiss
kunnan   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +accto know (+ optional double accusative)
kunþi   n. n.JAknowledge
kunþs   adj  +datknown
kustus   n. m.Uproof
laggs   adjlong
lagjan   v. I weakto lay
láiba   n. f.Oremnant
láis   vI know
láisareis   n. m.JAteacher
láiseigs   adjteachable
láiseins   n. f.Idoctrine
láisjan   v. I weakto teach (+acc of person taught and +acc of thing taught)
láists   n. m.Ifootprint
lamb   n. n.Alamb
lasiws   adjweak
laþon   v. II weakto invite
lats   adjslothful
láufs   n. m.Aleaf
laúhatjan   v. I weakto lighten
láun   n. n.Apay
láus   adj. aj.s  +genempty
leiƕan   v. I ablautto lend
leik   n. n.Abody
leikān   v. III weak  +datto please
leiþu   n. n.Ustrong drink
leitils   adjlittle
lekeis   n. m.JAphysician
letan   v. VII red.abl.to let
lew   n. n.Aoccasion
libáins   n. f.Ilife
libān   v. III weak  intrto live
ligan   v. V ablaut  intrto lie
ligrs   n. m.Abed
lists   n. f.Icraftiness
liþus   n. m.Ulimb
liudan   v. II ablaut  intrto grow
liufs   adj  +datdear
liugān   v. III weakto marry
liuta   n. m.Nhypocrite
ludja   n. f.Oface
luftus   n. m.Uair
lūkan   v. II ablautto shut
lukarn   n. n.Alight
lukarnastaþa   n. m.Ncandlestick
luston   v. II weak  +gento desire
lustus   n. m.Udesire
magaþs   n. f.Imaid
magula   n. m.Nlittle boy
magus   n. m.Uboy
mahteigs   adjmighty
mahts   adjpossible
máists   adjgreatest
máitan   v. VII redupto cut
máiþms   n. m.Agift
máiza   adj. w.ajgreater
majus   n. m.U/IMay (month)
malma   n. m.Nsand
managei   n. f.Nmultitude
managfalþs   adjmanyfold
managiza   adj. w.ajgreater
manags   adjmuch
manaseþs   n. f.Imankind
mannahun   pron(with ni) no one
manwus   adjready
marei   n. f.Nsea
martius   n. m.AMarch
matjan   v. I weakto eat
mats   n. m.Imeat
maúrgins   n. m.Amorning
maúrnān   v. III weakto mourn
maúrþr   n. n.Amurder
mawi   n. f.JOmaiden
mawilo   n. f.Nyoung maiden
meins   pronmy
meljan   v. I weakto write
mena   n. m.Nmoon
menoþs   n. m.Cmonth
merjands   n. m.NDproclaimer
midjawiko   n. f.NWednesday
midjis   adj. s.ajmiddle
mikilaba   advgreatly
mikildūþs   n. f.Igreatness
mikilnan   v. IV weak  intrto be magnified
mikils   adjgreat
miluks   n. f.Cmilk
minnists   adjleast
minniza   adj. w.ajsmaller
missadeþs   n. f.Imisdeed
missaleiks   adjdifferent
misso   adv(always with pers. pron.) reciprocally
mitaþs   n. f.Cmeasure
miþ   prep. +datwith
miþ   advwith
miþgardiwaddjus   n. f.Upartition wall
miþgasinþa   n. m.Ntravelling companion
miton   v. II weakto consider
mizdo   n. f.Nreward
modags   adj  +datangry
mota   n. f.Ocustom
motareis   n. m.JAtoll-taker
mulda   n. f.Odust
munān   v. III weakto consider
muns   n. m.Ithought
nahts   n. f.Cnight
namnjan   v. I weak  +accto name
naseins   n. f.Isalvation
nasjan   v. I weakto save
nati   n. n.JAnet
natjan   v. I weakto make wet
naúbaímbaír   n. m.ANovember
náus   n. m.Icorpse
náuþs   n. f.Ineed
ne   advnay
neƕa   prep. +datnigh to
neƕundja   n. m.Nneighbor
neþla   n. f.Oneedle
ni   advnot
nibái   conjunless
nidwa   n. f.Orust
nih   conjand not
niman   v. IV ablautto take
nist   v= ni ist
niþjis   n. m.JAkinsman
niþjo   n. f.Ncousin
niujis   adjnew
niujiþa   n. f.Onewness
niuklahs   adjunderage
niun   num. aj.inine
niunda   adj. w.ajninth
niuntehund   numninety
niutan   v. II ablaut  +gento enjoy
nota   n. m.Nstern of a ship
nu   advnow
nuta   n. m.Nfisher
ogan   v. pret-pres. VI abl.to fear
-oþu   suff(forming m. abstr. n. from class II weak v.: gáunothus
pareinsdags   n. m.AFriday
pintadags   n. m.AThursday
qaírrus   adjgentle
qens   n. f.Iwife
qiman   v. IV ablaut  intrto come
qino   n. f.Nwoman
qiss   n. f.Isaying
qiþan   v. V ablaut  +accto say
qius   adjalive
qums   n. m.Iadvent
ragineis   n. m.JAcounsellor
raíhts   adjright
ráisjan   v. I weakto raise
rasta   n. f.Omile
raþjo   n. f.Nnumber
ráuþs   adjred
razda   n. f.Olanguage
razn   n. n.Ahouse
reiki   n. n.JArule
reikinon   v. II weakto rule
reiks   n. m.Cruler
reirān   v. III weak  intrto tremble
riqis   n. n.Adarkness
riqizeins   adjdark
rodjan   v. I weak  intrto speak
rūna   n. f.Osecret
sa   pronthis
saei   pron(relative) who
saggws   n. m.Isong
sah   pronthat
saian   v. VII red.abl.to sow
saíhs   num. aj.isix
saíhs tigjus   num  +gensixty
saíhsta   adj. w.ajsixth
saíƕan   v. V ablaut  +accto see
saíptaímbaír   n. m.ASeptember
sáiwala   n. f.Osoul
sáiws   n. m.Isea
sakjo   n. f.Nstrife
sakkus   n. m.Usackcloth
salbon   v. II weakto anoint
salt   n. n.Asalt
sama   pronsame
samaþ   advto the same place
sambatadags   n. m.ASaturday
saþs   adjfull
satjan   v. I weakto set
saúhts   n. f.Isickness
saúrga   n. f.Osorrow
saúrgān   v. III weak  intrto sorrow
sáuþs   n. m.Isacrifice
seins   pronhis
seiþus   adjlate
sels   adj. aj.igood
si   pronshe
sibun   num. aj.iseven
sibuntehund   numseventy
sidon   v. II weakto practice
sidus   n. m.Ucustom
sifān   v. III weak  intrto rejoice
siggwan   v. III ablautto sing
sihu   n. n.Uvictory (irregular spelling probably a typo for a sm. *sigus
sik   prononeself
silba   pronself
sildaleiks   adjwonderful
silubr   n. n.Asilver
silubreins   adjsilver
simle   advonce
sineigs   adjold
sinteino   advalways
sinteins   adjdaily
sinþs   n. m.Atime (lit. a going)
siponeis   n. m.JApupil
sitan   v. V ablaut  intrto sit
sitls   n. m.Aseat
siujan   v. I weakto sew
siukan   v. II ablaut  intrto be sick
siuks   adjsick
siuns   n. f.Isight
skadus   n. m.Ushade
skáidan   v. VII redupto divide
skal   v  intrI shall
skalkinon   v. II weak  +datto serve
skalks   n. m.Aservant
skamān   v. III weak  +gen(+ sik) to be ashamed
skapjan   v. VI ablautto shape
skáuns   adj. aj.ibeautiful
skeinan   v. I ablaut  intrto shine
skeirs   adj. aj.iclear
skildus   n. m.Ushield
skip   n. n.Aship
skuggwa   n. m.Nmirror
skula   n. m.Ndebtor
skulan   v. pret-pres. IV abl.  intrto owe
skulds   adj  +datowing
slaúhts   n. f.Islaughter
slawān   v. III weak  intrto be silent
slepan   v. VII redup  intrto sleep
sleps   n. m.Asleep
smakka   n. m.Nfig
smals   adjsmall
snaga   n. m.Ngarment
snáiws   n. m.Asnow
snutrs   adjwise
so   pronthe (f.)
soh   pronthat
sokjan   v. I weak  +accto seek
sokns   n. f.Isearch
sparwa   n. m.Nsparrow
spaúrds   n. f.Cstadium
spedumists   adjlast
spillon   v. II weakto narrate
spráuto   advquickly
stáins   n. m.Astone
staírno   n. f.Nstar
standan   v. VI ablaut  intrto stand
staþs   n. m.Iplace
staua   n. f.Ojudgement
staua   n. m.Njudge
stibna   n. f.Ovoice
stojan   v. I weakto judge
stráujan   v. I weakto strew
striks   n. m.Istroke
sulamenoþs   n. m.CJanuary
sums   pron(indefinite) someone
sunja   n. f.Otruth
sunjaba   advtruly
sunjis   adjtrue
sunjon   v. II weakto justify
sunsei   conjas soon as
sunus   n. m.Uson
sutis   adj. aj.zsweet
sutiza   adj. w.ajsweeter
swaei   conjso that
swaíhra   n. m.Nfather in law
swaíhro   n. f.Nmother in law
swaláuþs   pronso great
swaleiks   pronsuch
swarts   adjblack
swaswe   conjjust like
swe   conjlike
sweiban   v. I ablaut  intrto cease
swerān   v. III weakto honor
swers   adj  +dathonored
swiglja   n. m.Npiper
swiglon   v. II weakto pipe
swikunþs   adj  +datmanifest
swinþoza   adj. w.ajstronger
swinþs   adjstrong
swistar   n. f.Rsister
swogatjan   v. I weakto sigh
tagl   n. n.Ahair
tagr   n. n.Atear
taíhswa   adj. w.ajright (hand side)
taíhun   num. aj.iten
taíhunda   adj. w.ajtenth
taíhuntaíhund   num  +genhundred
taíhuntaíhundfalþs   numhundredfold
taíhuntehund   num  +genhundred
táikns   n. f.Itoken
talzjands   n. m.NDteacher
taui   n. n.JAdeed
táujan   v. I weak  +accto do
tekan   v. VII red.abl.  +datto touch
þadei   advwhither
þagkjan   v. I weakto think
þahān   v. III weak  intrto be silent
þāho   n. f.Nclay
þaírh   prep. +accthrough
þaírhgaggan   v. VII redupto go or come through
þaírhleiþan   v. I ablautto go through
þaírhsaíƕan   v. V ablautto see through
þaírƕakan   v. IV ablautto keep watch
þan   conjbut
þande   conjif
þannu   conjtherefore
þar   advthere
þarei   adv(relative) where
þata   pronthat
þatei   conjthat
þatuh   pronthat
þaúrban   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +gento need
þaúrfts   n. f.Ineed
þaúrneins   adjthorny
þaúrnus   n. m.Uthorn
þaúrsus   adjdry
þeihan   v. I ablaut  intrto thrive
þeiƕo   n. f.Nthunder
þeins   pronthy
þiubi   n. n.JAtheft
þiuda   n. f.Opeople
þiudangardi   n. f.JOkingdom
þiudanon   v. II weakto reign as king
þiudans   n. m.Aking
þiudinassus   n. m.Ukingdom
þius   n. m.Aservant
þiwi   n. f.JOmaidservant
þlaqus   adjsoft
þlaúhs   n. m.Iflight
þliuhan   v. II ablautto flee
þragjan   v. I weak  intrto run
þramstei   n. f.Nlocust
þreis   num. 3three
þreis tigjus   num  +genthirty
þridja   adj. w.ajthird
þridjo   advfor the third time
þrimulki   n. f.JOApril
þū   pronthou
þugkjan   v. I weak  intrto seem
þūsundi   num. sf  +genthousand
-þwa   suff(forming nouns such as fijathwa
þwahan   v. VI ablautto wash
tigjus   num  +gen-ty (suffix for decades 20-60)
tils   adjfit
timrja   n. m.Ncarpenter
timrjan   v. I weakto build
tiuhan   v. II ablautto lead
trauān   v. III weakto trust
triu   n. n.Atree
tuggo   n. f.Ntongue
tulgus   adjfirm
tunþus   n. m.Utooth
tuzwerjan   v. I weakto doubt
twaddje   numof two
twái   num. 2two
twái tigjus   num  +gentwenty
twalibwintrus   adjtwelve years old
twalif   num. aj.itwelve
tweihnái   numtwo each
tweihnáim   num(f. dat.) two each
tweihnos   num(f. acc.) two each
twisstandan   v. VI ablaut  intrto depart
-u   part(interrogative particle
ubils   adjevil
ubiltojis   adjevil-doing
-ubni   suff(from IE -mnyo-; forming n. from v. as: fastubni
uf   prep. +datunder
ufáiþeis   adjunder oath
ufar   prep. +datover
ufarfulls   adjoverfull
ufarmeli   n. n.JAsuperscription
ufarmeljan   v. I weakto write over
ufarmunnon   v. II weak  +datto forget
ufaro   advabove
ufháusjan   v. I weak  +datto submit
ufkunnan   v. pret-pres. III abl.to perceive
ufligan   v. V ablaut  intrto lie under
ugkar   pronof us two
-uh   conj(enclitic) but
ūhtwo   n. f.Nearly morn
unagands   adjfearless
unbaírands   pplenot bearing
und   prep. +datfor
und   prep. +accunto
undar   prep. +accunder
undaro   prep. +datunder
undgreipan   v. I ablautto seize
undrinnan   v. III ablautto run to one
unháili   n. n.JAwant of health
unkunþs   adj  +datunknown
unsar   pronour
unsibjis   adjlawless
unte   conjuntil
unweis   adj. aj.sunlearned
us   prep. +datout
usbeidan   v. I ablautto await
usgeisnan   v. IV weak  intrto be aghast
uskiusan   v. II ablaut(+acc) to choose out
usluknan   v. IV weak  intrto become unlocked
usqiss   n. f.Iaccusation
ūta   advoutside
ūtana   prep. +gen= ûtathro
ūtaþro   prep. +genfrom without
waddjus   n. f.Uwall
wadi   n. n.JApledge
wahtwa   n. f.Owatch
waian   v. VII red.abl.to blow
waíhts   n. f.Ithing
wáinei   v. pret.pres.I wish
waír   n. m.Aman
waírpan   v. III ablaut  +acc/datto throw
waírsiza   adj. w.ajworse
waírþan   v. III ablaut  intrto become
waírþs   adj  +genworthy
wakan   v. VI ablaut  intrto wake
waldufni   n. n.JApower
waljan   v. I weakto choose
wamba   n. f.Obelly
wandjan   v. I weakto turn
wans   adj  +genlacking
wardja   n. m.Nguard
warjan   v. I weakto forbid
wasjan   v. I weakto clothe
wasti   n. f.JOclothing
waúrd   n. n.Aword
waúrkjan   v. I weak  +accto work
waúrms   n. m.Aserpent
waúrstw   n. n.Awork
waúrstweigs   adjeffective
waúrts   n. f.Iroot
weiha   n. m.Npriest
weihan   v. I ablautto fight
weihs   adjholy
wein   n. n.Awine
weis   pronwe
weitwoþs   n. m.Cwitness
weizei   pronwe who (relative)
wenjan   v. I weakto hope
wens   n. f.Ihope
wigs   n. m.Away
wilja   n. m.Nwill
wiljan   v. irreg.  intrbe willing
wilþeis   adjwild
winds   n. m.Awind
wintrufulleiþs   n. f.ISeptember
wintrus   n. m.Uwinter
-wintrus   adjyears old
wisan   v. V ablaut  intrto be
wit   pronwe two
witān   v. III weak  +datto watch
witan   v. pret-pres. I abl.to know
witei   pronwe two who (relative)
wiþra   prep. +accagainst
wiþragamotjan   v. I weakto go to meet
wiþrawaírþo   adv  +datcontrariwise
wiþrawaírþs   adj  +datopposite
wiþrus   n. m.Ulamb
witubni   n. n.JAknowledge
wiudamenoþs   n. m.CJuly
wrohs   n. f.Iaccusation
wulfs   n. m.Awolf
wulþus   n. m.Uglory
wundufni   n. f.JOwound
 

Unit 18

18.1) Names of Months and Days of the Week

Although the Goths didn't have any such concept as the corporate Monday-Friday, and apparently must not have celebrated birthdays (since "years old" is expressed with the combining form -wintrus, wintered, everyone was probably considered one year older each spring), in today's world the names of months and weekdays are relevant, so for the sake of completion, here are some names that others have proposed for the months of the year:

Jan januareis, sulamēnōþs
Feb faíbruareis, hrōþimēnōþs
Mar martius, áustramēnōþs
Apr apreilis, þrimulki
May majus, fruma linþja
Jun junius, anþar linþja
Jul julius, wiudamēnōþs
Aug agustus, háilagamēnōþs, asanamēnōþs
Sep saíptaímbaír, wintrufulleiþs
Oct aúktobaír, blōtamēnōþs
Nov naúbaímbaír, fruma jiuleis
Dec daíkaímbaír, anþar jiuleis, aftuma jiuleis

And the weekdays:

Mon daíwtaíradags
Tues areinsdags
Wedn aírminadags, midjawikō
Thu pintadags
Fri pareinsdags
Sat sambatadags
Sun fráujadags

18.2) Names of Colors:

Not all of these are attested, so some of them have been reconstructed based on other Germanic languages.

swarts black
ƕeits white
*grēws gray
*bruns brown
ráuþs red
*gilws, gulws yellow
*grōneis green
*blēws blue

18.3) Compounds and Word Formation

Many of the words we've seen already in these lessons are actually compound forms of simpler words. Some of the ways these words are compounded include:

18.4) Prefixes

af- away, as in af-stass, a falling away; af-lētan, to dismiss; without, as: af-guþs, godless; bad, as: af-drugka, drunkard.
afar- next, later: afar-dags, the next day; after: afar-gaggan, to follow.
ana- on: ana-lageins, a laying on; ana-áukan, to add to; also miscellaneously as ana-háitan, to call upon; ana-qiss, blasphemy; ana-siuns, visible; ana-waírþs, future.
and(a)- against: anda-staþjis, adversary; and-bindan, to unbind; forward: and-áugi, face; towards: and-hafjan, to answer; anda-hafts, an answer; before: anda-nahti, evening. The full anda- form occurs only on nouns and adjectives made from nominal or adjectival roots.
at- at: at-aþni, year; at-áugjan, to show; at-giban, to give up; at-witáins, observation.
bi- around: bi-rinnan, to run about; bi-sitands, neighbor.
dis- appears to be a Latin borrowing. Apart: dis-dáiljan, to share; dis-wiss, dissolution.
du- to: du-ginnan, to begin; du-rinnan, to run to.
faír- throughout: faír-weitjan, to gaze about; faír-weitl, spectacle.
faúr(a)- fore: faúr-biudan, to forbid; faúra-gaggan, to go before; faúr(a)-hāh, curtain; faúr-stasseis, chief ruler.
fra- similar to English for-. Fra-gifts, promise, gift; fra-liusan, to lose; fra-lusts, loss; fra-weit, revenge.
fram- from: fram-aldrs, very old (probably "from long ago"); fram-gāhts, progress; fram-waírþis, henceforward (an adverbial use of a genitive ending).
ga- A common Germanic prefix, related to Latin con- and originally meaning "together". Ultimately became mainly an intensifier, although it once formed verbal perfectives and also frequently occurs in collective nouns.
hindar- behind: hindar-leiþan, to go behind; hindar-weis, deceitful (probably a similar sense to "talking behind one's back").
id- similar to English re-: id-weitjan, to reproach; id-weit, reproach.
in- in: in-brannjan, to put into the fire; in-gardja, a co-habitant; reciprocal: in-máideins, exchange.
inna- within: inna-kunds, a co-habitant.
missa- bad, lost, mis-: missa-dēþs, misdeed; missa-leiks, various (presumably from an earlier meaning of "unlike").
miþ- with: miþ-ga-sinþa, traveling companion; between: miþ-gardi-waddjus, partition.
tuz- known only in tuz-wērjan, to doubt, both elements of which appear to be cranberry morphemes.
twis- separate: twis-standan, to depart.
þaírh- through: þaírh-leiþan, to go through; þaírh-saíƕan, to see through; þaírh-wakan, to keep watch.
uf- under: uf-áiþeis, under oath; uf-ligan, to lie (lay) under.
ufar- over: ufar-fulls, overfull; ufar-mēljan, to overwrite.
un- without: un-baírands, barren; not: un-háili, disease.
und- similar to and-: und-greipan, to seize; und-rinnan, to run to, thus to fall to one's share.
us- out: us-beidan, to await, wait out; us-qiss, accusation.
wiþra- to: wiþra-ga-mōtjan, to go to meet.

18.5) Suffixes

-aga- forming adjectives from verbal roots: grēdags, hungry, greedy, from grēdōn, to be greedy or hungry.
-aha- the same as -aga- except not limited to verbal roots: áinaha (weak adj), only, from áins; niu-klahs, underage (from an unknown root).
-áini- forming fem. abstr. nouns from Class I thru Class III weak verbs: libáins, life, from liban, to live.
-and- forming nomina agentis from verbal roots: frijōnds, friend, from frijōn, to love.
-arja- forming nomina agentis from other nouns, and sometimes from verbs: bōkareis, scribe, from bōka, letter.
-(in)assu- similar to English -ness: ibnassus, evenness, from ibns, even.
-atja- forming causative verbs: laúhatjan, to lighten; swōgatjan, to sigh (perhaps "to make a sigh").
-dūþi- forming feminine abstract nouns: mikildūþs, greatness, from mikils, great.
-eiga- forming adjectives of repletion, habit, or ability: láiseigs, apt to teach; mahteigs, mighty; waúrstweigs, effective.
-ein- forming fem. abstract nouns from adjectives: báitrei, bitterness, from báitrs, bitter.
-eina- forming adjectives of composition or repletion: gulþeins, golden, from gulþ, gold; þaúrneins, thorny; also metaphorically as áiweins, eternal, from áiws, eternity.
-inōn- forming verbs indicating committing or acting as: skalkinōn, to serve, from skalks; hōrinōn, to commit adultery, from hōrs, adulterer.
-iska- same as English -ish: barnisks, childish; funisks, fiery.
-iþa forming fem. abstr. nouns from adjectives: niujiþa, newness, from niujis.
-ōþu- forming masc. abstr. nouns from Class II weak verbs: gáunōþus, mourning, from gáunōn, to lament. Also occurs as -ōdu-.
-þwa forming fem. abstr. nouns: frijaþwa, love, from frijōn.
-ubni- forming neut. abstr. nouns: witubni, knowledge, from witan, wáit. Also occurs as -ufni-.

18.6) Examples of Material from This Unit

Translate these from Gothic:

1. Waíwald sa þiudans þaírh handu eisarneina.
2. Libains meina ist swarta galeik sáiwalái meinái.


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