Vocabulary

af   prep. +datof
afar   prep. +accafter
agis   n. n.Afright
aglus   adj  +dathard
ahtáu   num. aj.ieight
ahtáutehund   numeighty
aƕa   n. f.Oriver
áihts   n. f.Iproperty
aíƕs   n. m.Ahorse
áinlif   num. aj.ieleven
áins   num. 1one
aírþa   n. f.Oearth
aírþeins   adjearthly
aírzeis   adjastray
áiþs   n. m.Aoath
aíþþáu   conjor
áiweins   adjeternal
áiws   n. m.Atime
ak   conjbut
akran   n. n.Afruit
akrs   n. m.Afield
alan   v. VI ablaut  intrto grow
alja   prep. +datexcept
aljis   adjother
alls   adj. s.ajall
alþeis   adjold
ana   prep. +acconto
ana   prep. +daton
anabusns   n. f.Icommand
anaháitan   v. VII redup(+acc) to call on
analáugns   adj. aj.ihidden
anasiuns   adj. aj.ivisible
anaþrafstjan   v. I weak  +accto comfort
and   prep. +accalong
andahafts   n. f.Ianswer
andanems   adj. aj.ipleasant
andastaþjis   n. m.JAadversary
andbahti   n. n.JAservice
andeis   n. m.JAend
andhafjan   v. VI ablaut  +datto answer
andizuh   conjeither (used with aíththáu)
ansteigs   adj  +datgracious
ansts   n. f.Ifavor
arbáiþs   n. f.Iwork
arbi   n. n.JAheritage
arms   n. m.Iarm
arms   adjpoor
asans   n. f.Iharvest
asneis   n. m.JAservant
asts   n. m.Abranch
at   prep. +accat
aþþan   conjbut
attekan   v. VII red.abl.  +datto touch
áudags   adjblessed
áuk   conjbut also
áukan   v. VII redupto add
aúrkeis   n. m.JAjug
áuþida   n. f.Owilderness
áuþs   adj. aj.idesert
badi   n. n.JAbed
bagms   n. m.Atree
baíran   v. IV ablaut  +accto bear
baírgan   v. IV ablaut  +datto hide
baírhts   adjbright
báitrs   adjbitter
balgs   n. m.Ibag
balwjan   v. I weak  +datto torment
bandwa   n. f.Osign
barms   n. m.Ibosom
barn   n. n.Achild
barnisks   adjchildish
bauan   v. III weak pret.to dwell
baúr   n. m.Ison
beidan   v. I ablautto await
bi   prep. +datby
bida   n. f.Orequest
bidjan   v. V ablautto ask
bileiban   v. I ablaut  intrto remain
biudan   v. II ablautto offer
blinds   adjblind
bloþ   n. n.Ablood
boka   n. f.O(sing) letter of the alphabet; (pl) book
bokareis   n. m.JAscribe
bota   n. f.Oadvantage
brikan   v. IV ablautto break
brinnan   v. III ablaut  intrto burn
brūkjan   v. I weak  +gento use
brūks   adj. aj.i  +datuseful
brūþfaþs   n. m.Ibridegroom
dags   n. m.Aday
dáils   n. f.Iportion
dáupeins   n. f.Ibaptism
daúr   n. n.Adoor
deþs   n. f.Ideed
diups   adjdeep
dius   n. n.Awild beast
diwan   v. V ablaut  intrto die
dreiban   v. I ablautto drive
drigkan   v. III ablautto drink
drus   n. m.Ifall
du   prep. +datto
dwals   adjfoolish
ei   conjthat
eisarn   n. n.Airon
fadreins   n. f.Ifamily
fagrs   adjbeautiful
fāhan   v. VII redupto seize
faheþs   n. f.Ijoy
faírguni   n. n.JAmountain
faírneis   adjold
falþan   v. VII redupto fold
fara   n. f.Otraffic
faran   v. VI ablaut  intrto fare
fastubni   n. n.JAfasting
faúr   prep. +accfor
faúra   prep. +datbefore
faúramaþleis   n. m.JAruler
fáus   adj. aj.ausmall
fera   n. f.Oregion
fidwor   num. aj.ifour
fidwor tigjus   num  +genforty
fidwortaíhun   num. aj.ifourteen
fijaþwa   n. f.Ohatred
filhan   v. III ablautto hide
filu   adj. snu!j  +gengreat
fimf   num. aj.ifive
fimf tigjus   num  +genfifty
fimftaíhun   num. aj.ififteen
finþan   v. III ablaut  +accto find
fisks   n. m.Afish
frabugjan   v. I weak  +datto sell
fraíhnan   v. V ablaut  +gento ask
fráisan   v. VII redupto tempt
fráistubni   n. f.JOtemptation
fráiw   n. n.Aseed
frakunnan   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +datto despise
fraliusan   v. II ablaut  +datto lose
fralusts   n. f.Iloss
fram   prep. +datfrom
fraqiman   v. IV ablaut  +datto expend
fraþi   n. n.JAunderstanding
fraþjan   v. VI ablaut  +datto understand
freis   adj  +genfree
frijaþwa   n. f.Olove
frijondi   n. f.JOfriend
froþs   adjwise
fugls   n. m.Abird
fulgins   adjhidden
fullatojis   adjperfect
fulljan   v. I weak  +gento fill
fullnan   v. IV weak  +gento become full
fulls   adj. s.aj  +genfull
gabaúrþs   n. f.Ibirth
gafáurs   adj. aj.iwell-behaved
gaggan   v. VII redup  intrto go
gahráinjan   v. I weak  +gento cleanse
gahugds   n. f.Ithought
gáidw   n. n.Awant
gaírnjan   v. I weak  +gento be fain or willing
gakusts   n. f.Itest
galáubeins   n. f.Ifaith
galáubjan   v. I weakto believe
galeiks   adj  +datlike
gamáins   adj. aj.icommon
gamunds   n. f.Irememberance
gaqumþs   n. f.Iassembly
garūni   n. n.JAconsultation
garuns   n. f.Imarketplace
gaskafts   n. f.Icreation
gastaldan   v. VII redupto possess
gasts   n. m.Iguest
gataúrþs   n. f.Idestruction
gaþarbān   v. III weak  +gento suffer want
gaþláihan   v. VII redupto cherish
gáumjan   v. I weak  +datto perceive
gáurs   adjsad
gawaírþi   n. n.JApeace
gawi   n. n.JAregion
gawiljis   adjwilling
giba   n. f.Ogift
giban   v. V ablautto give
goþs   adj  +datgood
graba   n. f.Oditch
gras   n. n.Agrass
gredags   adjhungry
gretan   v. VII red.abl.  intrto weep
groba   n. f.Oden
gulþ   n. n.Agold
gulþeins   adjgolden
Gutrazda   n. f.OGothic language
hāhan   v. VII redupto hang
háiljan   v. I weak  +gento heal
háils   adjwhole
háims   n. f.Ivillage
haírdeis   n. m.JAshepherd
háitan   v. VII redup  +accto call
háiþi   n. f.JOfield
háiti   n. f.JOorder
haldan   v. VII redupto hold
halja   n. f.Ohell
handugs   adjclever
harjis   n. m.JAarmy
háubiþ   n. n.Ahead
haúrds   n. f.Idoor
haúrn   n. n.Ahorn
háusjan   v. I weakto hear
hawi   n. n.JAhay
hilpan   v. III ablaut  +gento help
himins   n. m.Aheaven
hindar   prep. +accbehind
hláifs   n. m.Aloaf
hláiw   n. n.Agrave
hlūtrs   adjpure
hráins   adj. aj.iclean
hulþs   adj  +datgracious
hunds   n. m.Adog
hups   n. m.Ihip
huzd   n. n.Atreasure
-ƕa   conjwhether (clitic)
ƕáiteis   n. m.JAwheat
ƕáiwa   conjhow
ƕeila   n. f.Otime
ƕopan   v. VII redup  intrto boast
ibái   conjlest
ibns   adjeven
iddja   v  intr(preterite of gaggan) I went
igqar   pron(poss) of you two
ik   pronI
im   v  intrI am
in   prep. +datin
in   prep. +genon account of
in   prep. +accin
inuh   prep. +accwithout
is   pronhe
is   v  intrthou art
ist   vis
ita   pronit
itan   v. V ablautto eat
  conjbut
izwar   pron(poss) your
ja   advyea
jabái   conjif
jah   conjand
jái   interj= ja
jaþþe   conjand if
jer   n. n.Ayear
juggs   adjyoung
juk   n. n.Ayoke
jus   pronye
jut   pronye two
juþan   advalready
kalds   adjcold
kara   n. f.Ocare
karkara   n. f.Oprison
kaúrn   n. n.Agrain
kiusan   v. II ablautto choose
kniu   n. n.Aknee
kukjan   v. I weak  +datto kiss
kunþi   n. n.JAknowledge
kunþs   adj  +datknown
laggs   adjlong
láiba   n. f.Oremnant
láisareis   n. m.JAteacher
láiseins   n. f.Idoctrine
láists   n. m.Ifootprint
lamb   n. n.Alamb
lasiws   adjweak
lats   adjslothful
láufs   n. m.Aleaf
láun   n. n.Apay
láus   adj. aj.s  +genempty
leiƕan   v. I ablautto lend
leik   n. n.Abody
leitils   adjlittle
lekeis   n. m.JAphysician
letan   v. VII red.abl.to let
lew   n. n.Aoccasion
libān   v. III weak  intrto live
ligan   v. V ablaut  intrto lie
ligrs   n. m.Abed
lists   n. f.Icraftiness
liudan   v. II ablaut  intrto grow
liufs   adj  +datdear
ludja   n. f.Oface
magaþs   n. f.Imaid
mahteigs   adjmighty
mahts   adjpossible
máitan   v. VII redupto cut
máiþms   n. m.Agift
manags   adjmuch
manaseþs   n. f.Imankind
mats   n. m.Imeat
maúrgins   n. m.Amorning
maúrþr   n. n.Amurder
mawi   n. f.JOmaiden
midjis   adj. s.ajmiddle
mikildūþs   n. f.Igreatness
mikils   adjgreat
miþ   prep. +datwith
miþ   advwith
modags   adj  +datangry
mota   n. f.Ocustom
motareis   n. m.JAtoll-taker
mulda   n. f.Odust
muns   n. m.Ithought
naseins   n. f.Isalvation
nati   n. n.JAnet
náus   n. m.Icorpse
náuþs   n. f.Ineed
ne   advnay
neƕa   prep. +datnigh to
neþla   n. f.Oneedle
ni   advnot
nibái   conjunless
nidwa   n. f.Orust
nih   conjand not
niman   v. IV ablautto take
nist   v= ni ist
niþjis   n. m.JAkinsman
niujis   adjnew
niun   num. aj.inine
niuntehund   numninety
niutan   v. II ablaut  +gento enjoy
nu   advnow
qens   n. f.Iwife
qiman   v. IV ablaut  intrto come
qiss   n. f.Isaying
qiþan   v. V ablaut  +accto say
qius   adjalive
qums   n. m.Iadvent
ragineis   n. m.JAcounsellor
raíhts   adjright
razda   n. f.Olanguage
razn   n. n.Ahouse
reiki   n. n.JArule
riqis   n. n.Adarkness
riqizeins   adjdark
rūna   n. f.Osecret
sa   pronthis
saggws   n. m.Isong
saian   v. VII red.abl.to sow
saíhs   num. aj.isix
saíhs tigjus   num  +gensixty
saíƕan   v. V ablaut  +accto see
sáiwala   n. f.Osoul
sáiws   n. m.Isea
salt   n. n.Asalt
saþs   adjfull
saúhts   n. f.Isickness
saúrga   n. f.Osorrow
sáuþs   n. m.Isacrifice
sels   adj. aj.igood
si   pronshe
sibun   num. aj.iseven
sibuntehund   numseventy
sifān   v. III weak  intrto rejoice
siggwan   v. III ablautto sing
sik   prononeself
silubr   n. n.Asilver
sineigs   adjold
sinteins   adjdaily
siponeis   n. m.JApupil
sitan   v. V ablaut  intrto sit
sitls   n. m.Aseat
siukan   v. II ablaut  intrto be sick
siuks   adjsick
siuns   n. f.Isight
skáidan   v. VII redupto divide
skalks   n. m.Aservant
skáuns   adj. aj.ibeautiful
skeinan   v. I ablaut  intrto shine
skeirs   adj. aj.iclear
skip   n. n.Aship
skulds   adj  +datowing
slaúhts   n. f.Islaughter
slepan   v. VII redup  intrto sleep
smals   adjsmall
snáiws   n. m.Asnow
snutrs   adjwise
so   pronthe (f.)
sokns   n. f.Isearch
stáins   n. m.Astone
standan   v. VI ablaut  intrto stand
staþs   n. m.Iplace
staua   n. f.Ojudgement
stibna   n. f.Ovoice
striks   n. m.Istroke
sums   pron(indefinite) someone
sunja   n. f.Otruth
sunjis   adjtrue
sunsei   conjas soon as
sutis   adj. aj.zsweet
swaei   conjso that
swarts   adjblack
swaswe   conjjust like
swe   conjlike
sweiban   v. I ablaut  intrto cease
swers   adj  +dathonored
swikunþs   adj  +datmanifest
swinþs   adjstrong
tagl   n. n.Ahair
tagr   n. n.Atear
taíhun   num. aj.iten
taíhuntaíhund   num  +genhundred
taíhuntehund   num  +genhundred
táikns   n. f.Itoken
taui   n. n.JAdeed
táujan   v. I weak  +accto do
tekan   v. VII red.abl.  +datto touch
þaírh   prep. +accthrough
þan   conjbut
þande   conjif
þannu   conjtherefore
þata   pronthat
þatei   conjthat
þaúrban   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +gento need
þaúrfts   n. f.Ineed
þeihan   v. I ablaut  intrto thrive
þiubi   n. n.JAtheft
þiuda   n. f.Opeople
þiudangardi   n. f.JOkingdom
þiudans   n. m.Aking
þius   n. m.Aservant
þiwi   n. f.JOmaidservant
þlaúhs   n. m.Iflight
þliuhan   v. II ablautto flee
þreis   num. 3three
þreis tigjus   num  +genthirty
þū   pronthou
þūsundi   num. sf  +genthousand
þwahan   v. VI ablautto wash
tigjus   num  +gen-ty (suffix for decades 20-60)
tils   adjfit
tiuhan   v. II ablautto lead
triu   n. n.Atree
twaddje   numof two
twái   num. 2two
twái tigjus   num  +gentwenty
twalif   num. aj.itwelve
-u   part(interrogative particle
ubils   adjevil
ubiltojis   adjevil-doing
uf   prep. +datunder
ufar   prep. +datover
ufarmeli   n. n.JAsuperscription
ufháusjan   v. I weak  +datto submit
ugkar   pronof us two
-uh   conj(enclitic) but
und   prep. +datfor
und   prep. +accunto
undar   prep. +accunder
undaro   prep. +datunder
unkunþs   adj  +datunknown
unsar   pronour
unsibjis   adjlawless
unte   conjuntil
unweis   adj. aj.sunlearned
us   prep. +datout
uskiusan   v. II ablaut(+acc) to choose out
wadi   n. n.JApledge
waian   v. VII red.abl.to blow
waír   n. m.Aman
waírpan   v. III ablaut  +acc/datto throw
waírþan   v. III ablaut  intrto become
waírþs   adj  +genworthy
wakan   v. VI ablaut  intrto wake
waldufni   n. n.JApower
wamba   n. f.Obelly
wans   adj  +genlacking
wasti   n. f.JOclothing
waúrd   n. n.Aword
waúrms   n. m.Aserpent
waúrstw   n. n.Awork
waúrts   n. f.Iroot
weihan   v. I ablautto fight
weihs   adjholy
wein   n. n.Awine
weis   pronwe
wenjan   v. I weakto hope
wens   n. f.Ihope
wigs   n. m.Away
wilþeis   adjwild
winds   n. m.Awind
wisan   v. V ablaut  intrto be
wit   pronwe two
wiþra   prep. +accagainst
wiþrawaírþo   adv  +datcontrariwise
wiþrawaírþs   adj  +datopposite
wrohs   n. f.Iaccusation
wulfs   n. m.Awolf
wundufni   n. f.JOwound
 

Unit 8

8.1) Masculine I-Stem Nouns

The Gothic masculine noun gasts (guest) looks like an a-declension noun just like dags, hunds, fisks, etc. It even forms both its voc. and acc. singulars as gast, its gen. sing. as gastis, and its dat. sing. as gasta, just like an a-declension noun. But the plural forms give away gasts as belonging to a different declension, called the i-declension:

Nom. þái gasteis the guests (subj)
Acc. þans gastins the guests (obj)
Gen. þizē gastē of the guests
Dat. þáim gastim to/for the guests

There are a few variations on this declension: drus (fall) has genitive singular drusis; the stem is drus- which absorbs the -s ending of the nominative singular. If the stem ends in a short vowel plus r, such as baúr (son, child), the nominative -s is also dropped: baúr, baúr, baúris, baúra, etc. Finally, stem -aw before -s or a null ending becomes áu: náus (corpse), náu, nawis, nawa.

If the plural of a masculine noun in -s is not attested, then it is often possible to determine from other Germanic languages whether the noun is an A-stem or I-stem noun. For example, we know that drus and qums are I-stem because Old English had dryre and cyme, the y of each word indicating that a lost i was once present in the lost second syllable.

Some masculine nouns declined like gasts or baúr include:

arms arm
balgs wine-skin
barms bosom, lap
brūfaþs bridegroom (stem brūfad-)
gards house
hups hip
láists track
mats meat
muns thought
qums coming
saggws song
sáiws sea
sáuþs sacrifice (stem sáud-)
staþs place (stem stad-)
striks stroke
þlaúhs flight

The numbers 4 thru 15, which are usually uninflected, do sometimes inflect like a masculine plural i-stem noun: fidwōrim, taíhunim, áinlibim, twalibim, fimf taíhunim, niunē, twalibē are all attested.

8.2) Feminine I-Stem Nouns

Feminine i-stem nouns decline similarly to the masculines, differing only in the singular in the gen. and dat.:

Singular
Nom sō ansts the favor (subj)
Acc þō anst the favor (obj)
Gen þizōs anstáis of the favor
Dat þizái anstái to/for the favor
Plural
Nom þōs ansteis the favors (subj)
Acc þōs anstins the favors (obj)
Gen þizō anstē of the favors
Dat þáim anstim to/for the favors

The voc. sing. is anst, same as the acc.

There are many feminine nouns declined like ansts, including:

áihts property
anabūsns command
andahafts answer
arbáiþs labor (stem arbáid-)
asans harvest
dáils portion
dēþs deed (stem dēd-)
fadreins family
fahēþs joy (stem fahēd-)
fralusts loss
gabaúrþs birth
gahugds thought
gakusts test
gamunds rememberance
gaqumþs assembly
garuns marketplace
gaskafts creation
gataúrþs destruction
haúrds door
lists craftiness
magaþs maid
mahts power
manasēþs world (stem manasēd-)
mikildūþs greatness
náuþs need
qēns woman
saúhts sickness
siuns sight
slaúhts slaughter
sōkns search
táikns token
þaúrfts need
waúrts root
wēns hope
wrōhs accusation

Also included are nouns in -ss formed from verbal roots, such as qiss (speech), from qiþan, declined qiss, qiss, qissáis, qissái etc.

There are no known neuter i-stem nouns.

8.3) Irregular I-Stem Nouns

A few i-declension nouns are irregular, including:

The noun háims (village) is i-declension in the singular, but ō-declension (recall unit 4) in the plural:

Singular Plural
Nom sō háims þōs háimōs
Voc Acc þō háim þōs háimōs
Gen þizōs háimáis þizō háimō
Dat þizái háimái þáim háimōm

Abstract nouns formed from weak verbs of the first conjugation are declined as follows:

Example: láiseins (doctrine)

Singular Plural
Nom sō láiseins þōs láiseinōs
Voc Acc þō láisein þōs láiseinins
Gen þizōs láiseináis þizō láiseinō
Dat þizái láiseinái þáim láiseinim

Other nouns declined like láiseins include:

dáupeins baptism (dáupjan, to baptise)
galáubeins faith (from galáubjan, to believe)
naseins salvation (nasjan, to save)

8.4) I-Stem Adjectives

Adjectives occur in the i-declension and have their own paradigm in the singular.

Masculine
Nom hráins sitls clean seat (subj)
Acc hráinjana sitl clean seat (obj)
Gen hráinis sitlis of a clean seat
Dat hráinjamma sitla to/for a clean seat
Feminine
Nom hráins haúrds clean door (subj)
Acc hráinja haúrd clean door (obj)
Gen hráinjáizōs haúrdáis of a clean door
Dat hráinjái haúrdái to/for a clean door
Neuter
Nom Acc hráin(jata) skip clean ship
Gen hráinis skipis of a clean ship
Dat hráinjamma skipa to/for a clean ship

Plurals have the same endings as mikils, but with the stem -j always present.

Other adjectives declined this way include:

analáugns hidden
anasiuns visible
andanēms pleasant
áuþs desert
brūks useful
gafáurs well behaved
gamáins common
sēls kind
skáuns beautiful
skeirs clear

8.5) Yes/No Questions

Yes/no questions in Gothic are formed by appending the clitic -u to the first word in the sentence. For example:

1. Itand hundōs mat. Dogs eat meat.
2. Itand-u hundōs mat? Do dogs eat meat?

If the first word in the question has a prefix, the -u goes between the prefix and the root:

3. And-hōft mis. You answered me.
4. And-u-hōft mis? Did you answer me?

Possible responses to a yes/no question include ja, jái (yes); ni, nē (no).

8.6) Examples of Material from This Unit

5. Saggwins-u siggwand þō magaþeis skáunjans? Are the maids are singing beautiful songs?
6. Sind andanēmjōs garuneis in þizái háimái nēƕa þamma sáiwa. There are pleasant marketplaces in the village by the sea.
7. Sō siuns qēnáis sēljáizōs þana gast anaþrafsteiþ. The sight of a kind woman comforts the guest.
8. In skeirjamma daga, alla sō háiþi ist anasiuns. On a clear day, the whole field is visible.
9. Sō áuþida nist hráins untē izái managa ist mulda. The desert is not clean because there is much dust.
Translate these from Gothic:
10. Hláibis nutu in þizái háimái.
11. Þái gasteis managans matins ētun in andanemjamma garda.
12. Skip in habanái ist háil, iþ skipa ni sind faúr þata.
13. Ni drigka, nist áuk aƕa in þizá áuþidái.
14. Gafáurs baúr ni tēkiþ þizái hráinjái haúrdái.

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