Vocabulary

af   prep. +datof
afar   prep. +accafter
afta   advbehind
aftra   advback
agis   n. n.Afright
agluba   advhardly
aglus   adj  +dathard
ahtáu   num. aj.ieight
ahtáutehund   numeighty
aƕa   n. f.Oriver
áihtron   v. II weakto beg for
áihts   n. f.Iproperty
aíƕs   n. m.Ahorse
áinlif   num. aj.ieleven
áins   num. 1one
áinshun   pron(+ ni) no one
áir   advsoon
áirinon   v. II weak  intrto be a messenger
aírþa   n. f.Oearth
aírþeins   adjearthly
aírzeis   adjastray
áiþs   n. m.Aoath
aíþþáu   conjor
áiweins   adjeternal
áiws   n. m.Atime
ak   conjbut
akran   n. n.Afruit
akrs   n. m.Afield
alan   v. VI ablaut  intrto grow
alja   prep. +datexcept
aljar   advelsewhere
aljaþ   advelsewhere
aljis   adjother
alls   adj. s.ajall
alþeis   adjold
ana   prep. +acconto
ana   prep. +daton
anabusns   n. f.Icommand
anaháitan   v. VII redup(+acc) to call on
analáugns   adj. aj.ihidden
anasiuns   adj. aj.ivisible
anaþrafstjan   v. I weak  +accto comfort
and   prep. +accalong
andahafts   n. f.Ianswer
andanems   adj. aj.ipleasant
andastaþjis   n. m.JAadversary
andbahti   n. n.JAservice
andeis   n. m.JAend
andhafjan   v. VI ablaut  +datto answer
andizuh   conjeither (used with aíththáu)
ansteigs   adj  +datgracious
ansts   n. f.Ifavor
arbáiþs   n. f.Iwork
arbi   n. n.JAheritage
arjan   v. I weakto plough/plow
arms   n. m.Iarm
arms   adjpoor
asans   n. f.Iharvest
asneis   n. m.JAservant
asts   n. m.Abranch
at   prep. +accat
aþþan   conjbut
atlaþon   v. II weakto call
attekan   v. VII red.abl.  +datto touch
áudags   adjblessed
áugjan   v. I weakto show
áuk   conjbut also
áukan   v. VII redupto add
aúrkeis   n. m.JAjug
áuþida   n. f.Owilderness
áuþs   adj. aj.idesert
awiliudon   v. II weak  +datto thank
badi   n. n.JAbed
bagms   n. m.Atree
baíran   v. IV ablaut  +accto bear
baírgan   v. IV ablaut  +datto hide
baírhts   adjbright
báitraba   advbitterly
báitrs   adjbitter
balgs   n. m.Ibag
balwjan   v. I weak  +datto torment
bandwa   n. f.Osign
barms   n. m.Ibosom
barn   n. n.Achild
barnisks   adjchildish
bauan   v. III weak pret.to dwell
baúr   n. m.Ison
beidan   v. I ablautto await
bi   prep. +datby
bida   n. f.Orequest
bidjan   v. V ablautto ask
bileiban   v. I ablaut  intrto remain
biudan   v. II ablautto offer
blinds   adjblind
bloþ   n. n.Ablood
boka   n. f.O(sing) letter of the alphabet; (pl) book
bokareis   n. m.JAscribe
bota   n. f.Oadvantage
briggan   v. I weak  +accto bring
brikan   v. IV ablautto break
brinnan   v. III ablaut  intrto burn
brūkjan   v. I weak  +gento use
brūks   adj. aj.i  +datuseful
brūþfaþs   n. m.Ibridegroom
bugjan   v. I weakto buy
dags   n. m.Aday
dáiljan   v. I weakto deal out
dáils   n. f.Iportion
dalaþ   advdown
dalaþa   advbelow
dáupeins   n. f.Ibaptism
daúr   n. n.Adoor
dáuþjan   v. I weakto put to death
deþs   n. f.Ideed
diups   adjdeep
dius   n. n.Awild beast
diwan   v. V ablaut  intrto die
domjan   v. I weak  +accto judge (+ optional double accusative)
dráibjan   v. I weakto drive
dreiban   v. I ablautto drive
drigkan   v. III ablautto drink
drus   n. m.Ifall
du   prep. +datto
dwalimon   v. II weak  intrto be foolish
dwals   adjfoolish
ei   conjthat
eisarn   n. n.Airon
fadreins   n. f.Ifamily
faginon   v. II weak  intrto rejoice
fagrs   adjbeautiful
fāhan   v. VII redupto seize
faheþs   n. f.Ijoy
faírguni   n. n.JAmountain
faírneis   adjold
faírraþro   advfrom afar
falþan   v. VII redupto fold
fara   n. f.Otraffic
faran   v. VI ablaut  intrto fare
fastubni   n. n.JAfasting
faúr   prep. +accfor
faúra   prep. +datbefore
faúra   advbefore
faúramaþleis   n. m.JAruler
faúrhtjan   v. I weakto fear
fáus   adj. aj.ausmall
fera   n. f.Oregion
fidwor   num. aj.ifour
fidwor tigjus   num  +genforty
fidwortaíhun   num. aj.ifourteen
fijaþwa   n. f.Ohatred
filhan   v. III ablautto hide
filu   adj. snu!j  +gengreat
fimf   num. aj.ifive
fimf tigjus   num  +genfifty
fimftaíhun   num. aj.ififteen
finþan   v. III ablaut  +accto find
fiskon   v. II weakto fish
fisks   n. m.Afish
fodjan   v. I weakto feed
frabugjan   v. I weak  +datto sell
fraíhnan   v. V ablaut  +gento ask
fráisan   v. VII redupto tempt
fráistubni   n. f.JOtemptation
fráiw   n. n.Aseed
frakunnan   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +datto despise
fraliusan   v. II ablaut  +datto lose
fralusts   n. f.Iloss
fram   prep. +datfrom
fraqiman   v. IV ablaut  +datto expend
fraþi   n. n.JAunderstanding
fraþjan   v. VI ablaut  +datto understand
fráujinon   v. II weak  intrto be lord or king
freis   adj  +genfree
frijaþwa   n. f.Olove
frijon   v. II weakto love
frijondi   n. f.JOfriend
froþs   adjwise
fugls   n. m.Abird
fulgins   adjhidden
fullatojis   adjperfect
fulljan   v. I weak  +gento fill
fullnan   v. IV weak  +gento become full
fulls   adj. s.aj  +genfull
gabaúrþs   n. f.Ibirth
gabindan   v. III ablautto bind
gafáurs   adj. aj.iwell-behaved
gaggan   v. VII redup  intrto go
gahráinjan   v. I weak  +gento cleanse
gahugds   n. f.Ithought
gáidw   n. n.Awant
gaírnjan   v. I weak  +gento be fain or willing
gakusts   n. f.Itest
galáubeins   n. f.Ifaith
galáubjan   v. I weakto believe
galeikon   v. II weakto liken
galeiks   adj  +datlike
gamáins   adj. aj.icommon
gamotjan   v. I weak  +datto meet
gamunds   n. f.Irememberance
gaqumþs   n. f.Iassembly
garaíhts   adjrighteous
garūni   n. n.JAconsultation
garuns   n. f.Imarketplace
gaskafts   n. f.Icreation
gastaldan   v. VII redupto possess
gasts   n. m.Iguest
gatamjan   v. I weakto tame
gataúrþs   n. f.Idestruction
gaþarbān   v. III weak  +gento suffer want
gaþláihan   v. VII redupto cherish
gáumjan   v. I weak  +datto perceive
gáunon   v. II weakto lament
gáurs   adjsad
gawaírþi   n. n.JApeace
gawaúrkjan   v. I weakto make
gaweison   v. II weak  +gento visit
gawi   n. n.JAregion
gawiljis   adjwilling
giba   n. f.Ogift
giban   v. V ablautto give
gistradagis   advtomorrow
goljan   v. I weakto greet
goþs   adj  +datgood
graba   n. f.Oditch
gras   n. n.Agrass
gredags   adjhungry
gretan   v. VII red.abl.  intrto weep
groba   n. f.Oden
gulþ   n. n.Agold
gulþeins   adjgolden
Gutrazda   n. f.OGothic language
hāhan   v. VII redupto hang
háifstjan   v. I weak  +accto strive
háifsts   n. f.Ifight
háiljan   v. I weak  +gento heal
háils   adjwhole
háims   n. f.Ivillage
haírdeis   n. m.JAshepherd
háitan   v. VII redup  +accto call
háiþi   n. f.JOfield
háiti   n. f.JOorder
haldan   v. VII redupto hold
halja   n. f.Ohell
handugs   adjclever
harjis   n. m.JAarmy
hatizon   v. II weakto be angry
háubiþ   n. n.Ahead
haúrds   n. f.Idoor
haúrn   n. n.Ahorn
háusjan   v. I weakto hear
hawi   n. n.JAhay
hazjan   v. I weakto praise
her   advhere
hidre   advhither
hilpan   v. III ablaut  +gento help
himins   n. m.Aheaven
hindar   prep. +accbehind
his   pronthis (acc. hina
hláifs   n. m.Aloaf
hláiw   n. n.Agrave
hlūtrs   adjpure
holon   v. II weakto treat with violence
hráins   adj. aj.iclean
huggrjan   v. I weakto hunger (impers. +acc of person)
hulþs   adj  +datgracious
hunds   n. m.Adog
hups   n. m.Ihip
huzd   n. n.Atreasure
-ƕa   conjwhether (clitic)
ƕadre   advwhither
ƕáiteis   n. m.JAwheat
ƕáiwa   conjhow
ƕan   adv(interr) when?
ƕar   advwhere
ƕarbon   v. II weakto go about
ƕarjis   pronwho
ƕarjizuh   pron(indefinite) each
ƕas   pronwho
ƕashun   pron(indefinite
ƕaþar   pronwhich of two
ƕaþaruh   proneach of two
ƕaþro   advwhence
ƕazuh   pron(indef) each
ƕe   adv(interr) with what
ƕeila   n. f.Otime
ƕeláuþs   pron(interr) how great
ƕileiks   pronwhat sort of
ƕopan   v. VII redup  intrto boast
ibái   conjlest
ibns   adjeven
iddja   v  intr(preterite of gaggan) I went
idreigon   v. II weak  intrto repent
igqar   pron(poss) of you two
ik   pronI
ikei   pronI who... (relative)
im   v  intrI am
in   prep. +accin
in   prep. +genon account of
in   prep. +datin
inna   advwithin
innana   advwithin
innaþro   advfrom within
inuh   prep. +accwithout
is   pronhe
is   v  intrthou art
ist   vis
ita   pronit
itan   v. V ablautto eat
  conjbut
iup   advupwards
iupa   advabove
izei   pron(rel) who
izwar   pron(poss) your
ja   advyea
jabái   conjif
jah   conjand
jái   interj= ja
jáidre   adv= jáind
jáinar   advyonder
jáind   advthither
jaþþe   conjand if
jer   n. n.Ayear
ju   advalready
juggs   adjyoung
juk   n. n.Ayoke
jus   pronye
jut   pronye two
jutei   pronye two who (relative)
juþan   advalready
juzei   pronye who (relative)
kalds   adjcold
kara   n. f.Ocare
karkara   n. f.Oprison
karon   v. II weakto care for
káupatjan   v. I weakto buffet
káupon   v. II weakto traffic
kaúrn   n. n.Agrain
kiusan   v. II ablautto choose
kniu   n. n.Aknee
kukjan   v. I weak  +datto kiss
kunþi   n. n.JAknowledge
kunþs   adj  +datknown
laggs   adjlong
lagjan   v. I weakto lay
láiba   n. f.Oremnant
láisareis   n. m.JAteacher
láiseins   n. f.Idoctrine
láisjan   v. I weakto teach (+acc of person taught and +acc of thing taught)
láists   n. m.Ifootprint
lamb   n. n.Alamb
lasiws   adjweak
laþon   v. II weakto invite
lats   adjslothful
láufs   n. m.Aleaf
láun   n. n.Apay
láus   adj. aj.s  +genempty
leiƕan   v. I ablautto lend
leik   n. n.Abody
leitils   adjlittle
lekeis   n. m.JAphysician
letan   v. VII red.abl.to let
lew   n. n.Aoccasion
libān   v. III weak  intrto live
ligan   v. V ablaut  intrto lie
ligrs   n. m.Abed
lists   n. f.Icraftiness
liudan   v. II ablaut  intrto grow
liufs   adj  +datdear
ludja   n. f.Oface
luston   v. II weak  +gento desire
magaþs   n. f.Imaid
mahteigs   adjmighty
mahts   adjpossible
máitan   v. VII redupto cut
máiþms   n. m.Agift
manags   adjmuch
manaseþs   n. f.Imankind
mannahun   pron(with ni) no one
matjan   v. I weakto eat
mats   n. m.Imeat
maúrgins   n. m.Amorning
maúrþr   n. n.Amurder
mawi   n. f.JOmaiden
meins   pronmy
meljan   v. I weakto write
midjis   adj. s.ajmiddle
mikilaba   advgreatly
mikildūþs   n. f.Igreatness
mikils   adjgreat
misso   adv(always with pers. pron.) reciprocally
miþ   prep. +datwith
miþ   advwith
miton   v. II weakto consider
modags   adj  +datangry
mota   n. f.Ocustom
motareis   n. m.JAtoll-taker
mulda   n. f.Odust
muns   n. m.Ithought
namnjan   v. I weak  +accto name
naseins   n. f.Isalvation
nasjan   v. I weakto save
nati   n. n.JAnet
natjan   v. I weakto make wet
náus   n. m.Icorpse
náuþs   n. f.Ineed
ne   advnay
neƕa   prep. +datnigh to
neþla   n. f.Oneedle
ni   advnot
nibái   conjunless
nidwa   n. f.Orust
nih   conjand not
niman   v. IV ablautto take
nist   v= ni ist
niþjis   n. m.JAkinsman
niujis   adjnew
niun   num. aj.inine
niuntehund   numninety
niutan   v. II ablaut  +gento enjoy
nu   advnow
ogan   v. pret-pres. VI abl.to fear
qens   n. f.Iwife
qiman   v. IV ablaut  intrto come
qiss   n. f.Isaying
qiþan   v. V ablaut  +accto say
qius   adjalive
qums   n. m.Iadvent
ragineis   n. m.JAcounsellor
raíhts   adjright
ráisjan   v. I weakto raise
rasta   n. f.Omile
razda   n. f.Olanguage
razn   n. n.Ahouse
reiki   n. n.JArule
reikinon   v. II weakto rule
riqis   n. n.Adarkness
riqizeins   adjdark
rodjan   v. I weak  intrto speak
rūna   n. f.Osecret
sa   pronthis
saei   pron(relative) who
saggws   n. m.Isong
sah   pronthat
saian   v. VII red.abl.to sow
saíhs   num. aj.isix
saíhs tigjus   num  +gensixty
saíƕan   v. V ablaut  +accto see
sáiwala   n. f.Osoul
sáiws   n. m.Isea
salbon   v. II weakto anoint
salt   n. n.Asalt
samaþ   advto the same place
saþs   adjfull
satjan   v. I weakto set
saúhts   n. f.Isickness
saúrga   n. f.Osorrow
sáuþs   n. m.Isacrifice
seins   pronhis
sels   adj. aj.igood
si   pronshe
sibun   num. aj.iseven
sibuntehund   numseventy
sidon   v. II weakto practice
sifān   v. III weak  intrto rejoice
siggwan   v. III ablautto sing
sik   prononeself
sildaleiks   adjwonderful
silubr   n. n.Asilver
simle   advonce
sineigs   adjold
sinteino   advalways
sinteins   adjdaily
siponeis   n. m.JApupil
sitan   v. V ablaut  intrto sit
sitls   n. m.Aseat
siujan   v. I weakto sew
siukan   v. II ablaut  intrto be sick
siuks   adjsick
siuns   n. f.Isight
skáidan   v. VII redupto divide
skalks   n. m.Aservant
skáuns   adj. aj.ibeautiful
skeinan   v. I ablaut  intrto shine
skeirs   adj. aj.iclear
skip   n. n.Aship
skulds   adj  +datowing
slaúhts   n. f.Islaughter
slepan   v. VII redup  intrto sleep
smals   adjsmall
snáiws   n. m.Asnow
snutrs   adjwise
so   pronthe (f.)
soh   pronthat
sokjan   v. I weak  +accto seek
sokns   n. f.Isearch
spillon   v. II weakto narrate
spráuto   advquickly
stáins   n. m.Astone
standan   v. VI ablaut  intrto stand
staþs   n. m.Iplace
staua   n. f.Ojudgement
stibna   n. f.Ovoice
stojan   v. I weakto judge
stráujan   v. I weakto strew
striks   n. m.Istroke
sums   pron(indefinite) someone
sunja   n. f.Otruth
sunjaba   advtruly
sunjis   adjtrue
sunjon   v. II weakto justify
sunsei   conjas soon as
sutis   adj. aj.zsweet
swaei   conjso that
swaláuþs   pronso great
swaleiks   pronsuch
swarts   adjblack
swaswe   conjjust like
swe   conjlike
sweiban   v. I ablaut  intrto cease
swers   adj  +dathonored
swiglon   v. II weakto pipe
swikunþs   adj  +datmanifest
swinþs   adjstrong
swogatjan   v. I weakto sigh
tagl   n. n.Ahair
tagr   n. n.Atear
taíhun   num. aj.iten
taíhuntaíhund   num  +genhundred
taíhuntehund   num  +genhundred
táikns   n. f.Itoken
taui   n. n.JAdeed
táujan   v. I weak  +accto do
tekan   v. VII red.abl.  +datto touch
þadei   advwhither
þagkjan   v. I weakto think
þaírh   prep. +accthrough
þan   conjbut
þande   conjif
þannu   conjtherefore
þar   advthere
þarei   adv(relative) where
þata   pronthat
þatei   conjthat
þatuh   pronthat
þaúrban   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +gento need
þaúrfts   n. f.Ineed
þeihan   v. I ablaut  intrto thrive
þeins   pronthy
þiubi   n. n.JAtheft
þiuda   n. f.Opeople
þiudangardi   n. f.JOkingdom
þiudans   n. m.Aking
þius   n. m.Aservant
þiwi   n. f.JOmaidservant
þlaúhs   n. m.Iflight
þliuhan   v. II ablautto flee
þragjan   v. I weak  intrto run
þreis   num. 3three
þreis tigjus   num  +genthirty
þridjo   advfor the third time
þū   pronthou
þugkjan   v. I weak  intrto seem
þūsundi   num. sf  +genthousand
þwahan   v. VI ablautto wash
tigjus   num  +gen-ty (suffix for decades 20-60)
tils   adjfit
timrjan   v. I weakto build
tiuhan   v. II ablautto lead
triu   n. n.Atree
twaddje   numof two
twái   num. 2two
twái tigjus   num  +gentwenty
twalif   num. aj.itwelve
-u   part(interrogative particle
ubils   adjevil
ubiltojis   adjevil-doing
uf   prep. +datunder
ufar   prep. +datover
ufarmeli   n. n.JAsuperscription
ufarmunnon   v. II weak  +datto forget
ufháusjan   v. I weak  +datto submit
ugkar   pronof us two
-uh   conj(enclitic) but
und   prep. +accunto
und   prep. +datfor
undar   prep. +accunder
undaro   prep. +datunder
unkunþs   adj  +datunknown
unsar   pronour
unsibjis   adjlawless
unte   conjuntil
unweis   adj. aj.sunlearned
us   prep. +datout
uskiusan   v. II ablaut(+acc) to choose out
ūta   advoutside
wadi   n. n.JApledge
waian   v. VII red.abl.to blow
waír   n. m.Aman
waírpan   v. III ablaut  +acc/datto throw
waírþan   v. III ablaut  intrto become
waírþs   adj  +genworthy
wakan   v. VI ablaut  intrto wake
waldufni   n. n.JApower
waljan   v. I weakto choose
wamba   n. f.Obelly
wandjan   v. I weakto turn
wans   adj  +genlacking
warjan   v. I weakto forbid
wasjan   v. I weakto clothe
wasti   n. f.JOclothing
waúrd   n. n.Aword
waúrkjan   v. I weak  +accto work
waúrms   n. m.Aserpent
waúrstw   n. n.Awork
waúrts   n. f.Iroot
weihan   v. I ablautto fight
weihs   adjholy
wein   n. n.Awine
weis   pronwe
weizei   pronwe who (relative)
wenjan   v. I weakto hope
wens   n. f.Ihope
wigs   n. m.Away
wilþeis   adjwild
winds   n. m.Awind
wisan   v. V ablaut  intrto be
wit   pronwe two
witei   pronwe two who (relative)
wiþra   prep. +accagainst
wiþrawaírþo   adv  +datcontrariwise
wiþrawaírþs   adj  +datopposite
wrohs   n. f.Iaccusation
wulfs   n. m.Awolf
wundufni   n. f.JOwound
 

Unit 10

10.1) Demonstrative Pronouns

Although the definite article functions as the usual demonstrative pronoun, there is attested a pronoun whose stem is hi-, as und hina dag (to this day), himma daga (in this day), fram himma (henceforth), und hita nu (until now). No other forms of this pronoun are attested, although a complete declension has been reconstructed; it appears in the lexicon on this site as his.

There is a compound demonstrative pronoun, formed from sa, sō, þata by appending -uh. The nom. sing. forms are sah, sōh, þatuh; all others change final -a to -uh; final -s to -zuh; and any other vowel simply appends -h.

10.2) Posessive Pronouns

In addition to the genitives of the personal pronouns, there are also posessive pronouns: meins, meina, mein(ata) (my); þeins, þeina, þein(ata) (thy); seins, seina, sein(ata) (his/her). These appear to be declined like most adjectives (see mikils). Also attested is unsar, masc. acc. unsarana, fem. nom. acc. unsara. The neuter nom. acc. of unsar does not occur with the -ata ending.

Only when referring to the subject of the sentence do forms of seins occur. Any other time, one of the genitive pronouns is, ize, izos, izo, is used.

The corpus of Gothic texts frequently uses posessive pronouns with the definite article, a construction reminiscent of, and perhaps influenced by, Greek, for example so armahaírtiþa þeina, literally "the mercy [of] thine", as the translation for σοῦ ἡ ἐλεημοσύνη.

10.3) Class II Weak Verbs

Class II weak verbs are distinctive in having their infinitive in -ōn instead of -an. Otherwise, the consonants of the present tense are the same as in strong verbs:

ik salbō I anoint
þū salbōs thou anoint
is/si/ita salbōþ he/she/it anoints
wit salbōs we two anoint
jut salbōts you two anoint
weis salbōm we anoint
jus salbōþ you (pl) anoint
eis/ijōs/ija salbōnd they anoint

The preterite forms are salbōda, salbōdēs, salbōda; salbōdēdu, etc.

Quite a few verbs belong to this conjugation:

áihtrōn to beg for
áirinōn to be messenger
awiliudōn +dat to thank
dwalimōn to be foolish, mad
faginōn to rejoice
fiskōn to fish
fráujinōn to be ruler
frijōn to love
ga-leikōn to liken
gáunōn to lament
ga-weisōn to visit
hatizōn to hate
hōlōn to treat violently
ƕarbōn to go about
idreigōn to repent
karōn to care for
káupōn to traffic
laþōn to invite
lustōn to desire
mitōn to consider
reikinōn to rule
sidōn to practice
skalkinōn to serve
spillōn to narrate, tell
sunjōn to justify
swiglōn to pipe
ufar-munnōn to forget

and several more.

10.4) Imperatives

Imperatives are formed differently in strong vs. weak verbs. Strong verbs such as qiþan form the 2nd person singular imperative from the plain stem: qiþ (say!). If the final consonant is voiced, it becomes devoiced: liuþ (grow!) from liudan. For weak verbs, the 2nd sing. imper. is formed like so: sōkei (seek!) from sōkjan and salbō (anoint!) from salbōn.

These and other persons and numbers of imperatives for these verbs are as follows:

Weak Strong
sōkjan salbōn qiþan liudan
Sing.
2nd sōkei seek thou salbō qiþ liuþ
3rd sōkjadáu may s/he seek salbōdau qiþadáu liudadáu
Dual
2nd sōkjats seek ye two salbōts qiþats liudats
Pl.
1st sōkjam let's seek salbōm qiþam liudam
2nd sōkeiþ seek ye salbōþ qiþiþ liudiþ
3rd sōkjandáu may they seek salbōndáu qiþandáu liudandáu

10.5) Indefinite Pronouns

By appending -uh to the forms of ƕas, ƕō, ƕa, and the forms of ƕarjis, with some sound changes, the indefinite pronouns ƕazuh (ƕōh, ƕah), ƕarjizuh (ƕarjōh, ƕarjatōh), and áinƕarjizuh (áinƕarjōh, áinƕarjatōh) are formed. Both mean each, every. There is also ƕaþaruh (each of two; both), but this is only attested in the masculine dative form ƕaþarammēh and its compound áinƕaþarammēh.

Ƕazuh has ƕanōh for masc. acc. and ƕammēh for dat. masc. and neut. but otherwise resembles ƕas in all genders with the following changes: Final vowels append -h and final consonants append -uh; final s is voiced to z. Ƕarjizuh similarly resembles ƕarjis + -h, -uh, s->z but with masc. acc. ƕarjanōh; neut. nom. acc. ƕarjatōh; masc. neut. dat. ƕarjammēh.

The sound changes for appending -uh to pronouns are are evident in the following declension table:

Masc.
Nom.ƕazuhƕarjizuhƕaþaruh
Acc.ƕanuh (irregular)ƕarjanōhƕaþaranōh
Gen.ƕizuhƕarjizuhƕaþarizuh
Dat.ƕammēhƕarjammēhƕaþarammēh
Fem.
Nom.ƕōhƕarjōhƕaþarōh
Acc.ƕōhƕarjōhƕaþarōh
Gen.ƕizōzuhƕarjáizōzuhƕaþaráizōzuh
Dat.ƕizáihƕarjáihƕaþaráih
Neu.
Nom.ƕahƕarjatōhƕaþaratōh
Acc.ƕahƕarjatōhƕaþaratōh
Gen.ƕizuhƕarjizuhƕaþarizuh
Dat.ƕammēhƕarjammēhƕaþarammēh

Note the irregular form ƕanuh. It is attested twice, however the expected ƕanōh is attested once. Also attested is acc. pl. ƕanzuh for the same pronoun.

The combinations ƕazuh saei, saƕazuh saei, saƕazuh izei, þisƕazuh saei all mean "whosoever". The neuter equivalent þataƕah þei means "whatsoever". In the neuter N.V.A., þisƕaduh þadei is attested as an adverb meaning "whithersoever".

Another indefinite pronoun is sums (some), declined like mikils. When used in the construction sums ... sums ..., it means "the one ... while the other ..." comparing two parallel clauses in a manner equivalent to Greek 'ο μέν ... 'ο δέ. When used in this way, sums usually has -uh added to its second occurence, and sometimes to both: (nom. pl.) sumái(h) ... sumáih ... (some ... and others ...). In many instances the -h assimilates to due to a following þan. The attested forms of sums + -uh are:

Singular
Acc.sumana ... sumanuh
Dat.sumamma ... sumammuh
Plural
Nom.sumái ... sumáih/sumáiþ-þan
Acc.sumans ... sumanzuh, sumanzuþ-þan, sumansuþ-þan
Gen.sumáizē ... sumáizēh
Dat.sumáim ... sumáimuþ-þan

10.6) Indefinite Pronouns for Negation

Indefinite pronouns used for negation are built from ƕas, áins, or manna plus the clitic -hun, and always occur with ni to mean "no one". Mannahun is always masculine and declines as mannahun, mannanhun, manshun, mannahun. (More on this declension in the next unit.) Ƕashun is only attested in the masc. nom.: ni ƕashun. Ni áinshun (no one, nothing) is declined as:

Masc.
Nom. ni áinshun
Acc. ni áin(n)ōhun
Gen. ni áinishun
Dat. ni áinummēhun
Fem.
Nom.Acc. ni áinōhun
Gen. ni áináizōshun
Dat. ni áináihun
Neut.
Nom.Acc. ni áinhun
Gen. ni áinishun
Dat. ni áinummēhun

10.7) Other Uses of the Accusative

Besides forming the direct object of the majority of transitive verbs, the accusative has a few other uses:

10.8) Examples of Material from This Unit

1. Hláif unsarana þana sinteinan gif uns himma daga. Give us this day our daily bread.
2. Láisei ins managa sildaleika. Teach them many wonderful things.
3. Laþoþ ugkis du razna is du itan. He is inviting us two over to his house to eat.
4. Ƕazuh saei þūk ananáuþeiþ rasta áina, gagg miþ imma twōs. Whosoever compels you to go a mile, go with him two.
5. Is was gabundans handuns jah fōtuns, ak faginōda sunsei ina laílōtun gaggan.He was bound as to hands and feet, but he rejoiced when they let him go.
Translate these from Gothic:
6. Gawaúrkeiþ jus waúrstwa skáuna.
7. Ni kar ist ina þizē lambē.
8. Láisei þuk Gutrazda jah fraþjis waúrda meina.
9. Þanzei gaft mis, ni fraláus izē áinummēhun. (Note: þanzei = þans + ei.)
10. Sumáim snáiws ist andanēms, sumáimuh ist ufar kalds.

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