agis   n. n.Afright
aíƕs   n. m.Ahorse
áiþs   n. m.Aoath
áiws   n. m.Atime
akran   n. n.Afruit
akrs   n. m.Afield
alan   v. VI ablaut  intrto grow
ana   prep. +daton
asts   n. m.Abranch
bagms   n. m.Atree
barn   n. n.Achild
bileiban   v. I ablaut  intrto remain
bloþ   n. n.Ablood
dags   n. m.Aday
daúr   n. n.Adoor
dius   n. n.Awild beast
diwan   v. V ablaut  intrto die
dreiban   v. I ablautto drive
drigkan   v. III ablautto drink
eisarn   n. n.Airon
faran   v. VI ablaut  intrto fare
filhan   v. III ablautto hide
finþan   v. III ablaut  +accto find
fisks   n. m.Afish
fraíhnan   v. V ablaut  +gento ask
fugls   n. m.Abird
gaggan   v. VII redup  intrto go
giban   v. V ablautto give
gras   n. n.Agrass
gretan   v. VII red.abl.  intrto weep
gulþ   n. n.Agold
háubiþ   n. n.Ahead
haúrn   n. n.Ahorn
háusjan   v. I weakto hear
himins   n. m.Aheaven
hláifs   n. m.Aloaf
hunds   n. m.Adog
huzd   n. n.Atreasure
ist   vis
itan   v. V ablautto eat
jer   n. n.Ayear
juk   n. n.Ayoke
kaúrn   n. n.Agrain
lamb   n. n.Alamb
láufs   n. m.Aleaf
láun   n. n.Apay
leik   n. n.Abody
libān   v. III weak  intrto live
ligan   v. V ablaut  intrto lie
ligrs   n. m.Abed
máiþms   n. m.Agift
maúrgins   n. m.Amorning
maúrþr   n. n.Amurder
ni   advnot
niman   v. IV ablautto take
qiman   v. IV ablaut  intrto come
qiþan   v. V ablaut  +accto say
razn   n. n.Ahouse
riqis   n. n.Adarkness
sa   pronthis
saian   v. VII red.abl.to sow
saíƕan   v. V ablaut  +accto see
salt   n. n.Asalt
sifān   v. III weak  intrto rejoice
siggwan   v. III ablautto sing
silubr   n. n.Asilver
sitan   v. V ablaut  intrto sit
sitls   n. m.Aseat
skalks   n. m.Aservant
skip   n. n.Aship
slepan   v. VII redup  intrto sleep
stáins   n. m.Astone
standan   v. VI ablaut  intrto stand
tagl   n. n.Ahair
tagr   n. n.Atear
táujan   v. I weak  +accto do
þata   pronthat
þeihan   v. I ablaut  intrto thrive
þiudans   n. m.Aking
waírþan   v. III ablaut  intrto become
wakan   v. VI ablaut  intrto wake
waúrd   n. n.Aword
waúrms   n. m.Aserpent
weihan   v. I ablautto fight
wein   n. n.Awine
wigs   n. m.Away
winds   n. m.Awind
wulfs   n. m.Awolf

Unit 2

2.1) Plurals of Nouns

So far we have only seen singular nouns. The plurals of nouns in the declension of fugls, called the a-declension, are:

Nom. þái fuglōs the birds (subject)
Acc. þans fuglans the birds (direct object)
Gen. þizē fuglē of the birds
Dat. þáim fuglam to/for the birds

The a-declension corresponds to the -ος, -ον declension of Ancient Greek, and the -us, -um declension of Latin.

Using waúrd (word) as our example, we have the following plurals for the a-declenstion neuters:

Nom. þō waúrda the words (subject)
Acc. þō waúrda the words (direct object)
Gen. þizē waúrdē of the words
Dat. þáim waúrdam to/for the words

2.2) Changes in Consonant Voicing

Gothic has a few nouns which change the voicing of the consonant at the end of their stem, much like the English words wolf, leaf, which become wolves, leaves in the plural. Although the Gothic plural of wulfs is wulfōs, the word láufs (leaf) becomes láubōs in the nom. plural, as too does hláifs (bread, loaf) become hláibōs. Besides all cases of the plural, this change also affects the genitive and dative singular:

Nom. sa láufs sa hláifs
Acc. þana láuf þana hláif
Gen. þis láubis þis hláibis
Dat. þamma láuba þamma hláiba

In each of these forms, the b between vowels is pronounced like the letter v in English.

A parallel sound change happens in the neuter noun haubiþ, head:

N.V.A. þata haubiþ the head
Gen. þis haubidis of the head
Dat. þamma haubida to/for the head
N.V.A. þō haubida the heads
Gen. þizē haubidē of the heads
Dat. þáim haubidam to/for the heads

In these forms, the d between vowels is pronounced like the voiced th in English "then". Declined like háubiþ are liuhaþ (light), witōþ (law).

2.3) Third Person Plurals of Verbs

We've seen that the first person singular of verbs ends in -iþ, except for "is" which is ist. The third person plural of verbs ends in -and, while the plural of ist is sind. Here are some verbs and some more sentences:

bi-leiban to remain
diwan to die
dreiban to drive
drigkan to drink
faran to fare, go
filhan to conceal, hide
finþan to find
fraíhnan to ask
gaggan to go
giban to give
gretan to weep, mourn
háusjan to hear
itan to eat
liban to live
ligan to lie (as in lay)
niman to take
qiman to come
qiþan to say
saian to sow
saíƕan to see
sifan to rejoice
siggwan to sing
slēpan to sleep
standan to stand
táujan to do
þeihan to thrive
waírþan to become; to come to pass
wakan to wake
weihan to fight

2.4) Examples of Material from This Unit

1. Fuglōs siggwand in himina. Birds are singing in the sky.
2. Sind sitlōs þáim skalkam. There are seats for the servants.
3. þái bagmōs filhand þata huzd þizē barnē. The trees conceal the children's treasure.
4. Sa hunds itiþ fiskans. The dog is eating fishes.
5. In riqiza sind þō skipa. The ships are in darkness.

See if you can translate these sentences from Gothic:

6. þata silubr ist láun þáim skalkam.
7. þō barna itand akrana.
8. In þamma grasa filhiþ þata riqis þans wulfans.
9. Sa hunds ligiþ ana þamma ligra. (Note: ana = on.)
10. þata ist tagl hundē. (Note: the Gothic definite article is also a demonstrative that means "this", "that".)


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