Vocabulary

agis   n. n.Afright
ahtáu   num. aj.ieight
aíƕs   n. m.Ahorse
áins   num. 1one
áiþs   n. m.Aoath
áiws   n. m.Atime
akran   n. n.Afruit
akrs   n. m.Afield
alan   v. VI ablaut  intrto grow
ana   prep. +daton
and   prep. +accalong
asts   n. m.Abranch
bagms   n. m.Atree
barn   n. n.Achild
bileiban   v. I ablaut  intrto remain
bloþ   n. n.Ablood
dags   n. m.Aday
daúr   n. n.Adoor
dius   n. n.Awild beast
diwan   v. V ablaut  intrto die
dreiban   v. I ablautto drive
drigkan   v. III ablautto drink
du   prep. +datto
eisarn   n. n.Airon
faran   v. VI ablaut  intrto fare
fidwor   num. aj.ifour
filhan   v. III ablautto hide
fimf   num. aj.ifive
finþan   v. III ablaut  +accto find
fisks   n. m.Afish
fraíhnan   v. V ablaut  +gento ask
fugls   n. m.Abird
gaggan   v. VII redup  intrto go
giban   v. V ablautto give
gras   n. n.Agrass
gretan   v. VII red.abl.  intrto weep
gulþ   n. n.Agold
háubiþ   n. n.Ahead
haúrn   n. n.Ahorn
háusjan   v. I weakto hear
himins   n. m.Aheaven
hláifs   n. m.Aloaf
hunds   n. m.Adog
huzd   n. n.Atreasure
ik   pronI
im   v  intrI am
is   v  intrthou art
ist   vis
itan   v. V ablautto eat
jer   n. n.Ayear
juk   n. n.Ayoke
kaúrn   n. n.Agrain
lamb   n. n.Alamb
láufs   n. m.Aleaf
láun   n. n.Apay
leik   n. n.Abody
libān   v. III weak  intrto live
ligan   v. V ablaut  intrto lie
ligrs   n. m.Abed
máiþms   n. m.Agift
maúrgins   n. m.Amorning
maúrþr   n. n.Amurder
ni   advnot
niman   v. IV ablautto take
niun   num. aj.inine
qiman   v. IV ablaut  intrto come
qiþan   v. V ablaut  +accto say
razn   n. n.Ahouse
riqis   n. n.Adarkness
sa   pronthis
saian   v. VII red.abl.to sow
saíhs   num. aj.isix
saíƕan   v. V ablaut  +accto see
salt   n. n.Asalt
sibun   num. aj.iseven
sifān   v. III weak  intrto rejoice
siggwan   v. III ablautto sing
silubr   n. n.Asilver
sitan   v. V ablaut  intrto sit
sitls   n. m.Aseat
skalks   n. m.Aservant
skip   n. n.Aship
slepan   v. VII redup  intrto sleep
stáins   n. m.Astone
standan   v. VI ablaut  intrto stand
tagl   n. n.Ahair
tagr   n. n.Atear
taíhun   num. aj.iten
táujan   v. I weak  +accto do
þata   pronthat
þeihan   v. I ablaut  intrto thrive
þiudans   n. m.Aking
þreis   num. 3three
þū   pronthou
twái   num. 2two
waírþan   v. III ablaut  intrto become
wakan   v. VI ablaut  intrto wake
waúrd   n. n.Aword
waúrms   n. m.Aserpent
weihan   v. I ablautto fight
wein   n. n.Awine
wigs   n. m.Away
winds   n. m.Awind
wisan   v. V ablaut  intrto be
wulfs   n. m.Awolf
 

Unit 3

3.1) Personal Endings of Verbs

Verbs in Gothic take endings for all three persons, whereas in English only the third person singular has its own ending: -s. Here is an example of the inflected endings of a Gothic verb, along with the personal pronouns they correspond to:

Infinitive siggwan to sing
Singular
1st ik siggwa I sing
2nd þū siggwis Thou sing
3rd is siggwiþ He sings (feminine: si siggwiþ, she sings; neuter: ita siggwiþ, it sings.)
Plural
1st weis siggwam we sing
2nd jus siggwiþ you (pl.) sing
3rd eis siggwand they (masculine) sing (feminine: ijōs siggwand; neuter: ija siggwand).

In the first and second persons, Gothic also has a dual number:

Dual
1st wit siggwōs we two sing
2nd jut siggwats you two sing

Sometimes, a word that should end in þ is found to end in d instead, for example drigkid instead of drigkiþ.

3.2) Irregular Verb Wisan (To Be)

As with most languages, the verb for "to be" is irregular:

Infinitive wisan to be
Singular
1st ik im I am
2nd þū is thou art
3rd is ist he is (si ist, she is; ita ist, it is)
Dual
1st wit siju we two are
2nd jut sijuts you two are
Plural
1st weis sijum we are
2nd jus sijuþ you (pl.) are
3rd eis sind they (masc.) are (fem. ijōs sind; neut. ija sind.)

In written and spoken Gothic, it would be unusual to use the pronoun with the verb, except for emphasis. Still, it is easier to learn and memorize the different forms when they are put together like this.

3.3) Numbers 1 thru 10

The numbers from one to ten in Gothic are:

1 áins
2 twái
3 þreis
4 fidwōr
5 fimf
6 saíhs
7 sibun
8 ahtáu
9 niun
10 taíhun

3.4) Examples of Material from This Unit

1. þamma razna sind saíhs daúra. The house has six doors. (Literally, to the house are six doors. In unit 12 we'll encounter another way to say this.)
2. Saíƕa þans láubans fimf bagmē. I see the leaves of five trees.
3. Saiis kaúrn in akra. You (thou) sow corn in a field.
4. þái skalkōs áiþans qiþand þamma þiudana. The servants speak oaths to the king.
5. Wit gaggōs and þana wig du þamma razna. We two are going along the way to the house. (Note and = along; this preposition takes the accusative. Du = to; takes the dative.)

See if you can translate these sentences into Gothic:

6. Seven birds are eating fruits.
7. They see the door of the house.
8. This is the way to the servants' house.
9. You two are sowing in the daytime.
10. You (plural) are singing in the morning.

Answers



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