Vocabulary

af   prep. +datof
afar   prep. +accafter
afta   advbehind
aftra   advback
agis   n. n.Afright
agluba   advhardly
aglus   adj  +dathard
ahtáu   num. aj.ieight
ahtáutehund   numeighty
aƕa   n. f.Oriver
áihts   n. f.Iproperty
aíƕs   n. m.Ahorse
áinlif   num. aj.ieleven
áins   num. 1one
áir   advsoon
aírþa   n. f.Oearth
aírþeins   adjearthly
aírzeis   adjastray
áiþs   n. m.Aoath
aíþþáu   conjor
áiweins   adjeternal
áiws   n. m.Atime
ak   conjbut
akran   n. n.Afruit
akrs   n. m.Afield
alan   v. VI ablaut  intrto grow
alja   prep. +datexcept
aljar   advelsewhere
aljaþ   advelsewhere
aljis   adjother
alls   adj. s.ajall
alþeis   adjold
ana   prep. +daton
ana   prep. +acconto
anabusns   n. f.Icommand
anaháitan   v. VII redup(+acc) to call on
analáugns   adj. aj.ihidden
anasiuns   adj. aj.ivisible
anaþrafstjan   v. I weak  +accto comfort
and   prep. +accalong
andahafts   n. f.Ianswer
andanems   adj. aj.ipleasant
andastaþjis   n. m.JAadversary
andbahti   n. n.JAservice
andeis   n. m.JAend
andhafjan   v. VI ablaut  +datto answer
andizuh   conjeither (used with aíththáu)
ansteigs   adj  +datgracious
ansts   n. f.Ifavor
arbáiþs   n. f.Iwork
arbi   n. n.JAheritage
arjan   v. I weakto plough/plow
arms   adjpoor
arms   n. m.Iarm
asans   n. f.Iharvest
asneis   n. m.JAservant
asts   n. m.Abranch
at   prep. +accat
aþþan   conjbut
attekan   v. VII red.abl.  +datto touch
áudags   adjblessed
áugjan   v. I weakto show
áuk   conjbut also
áukan   v. VII redupto add
aúrkeis   n. m.JAjug
áuþida   n. f.Owilderness
áuþs   adj. aj.idesert
badi   n. n.JAbed
bagms   n. m.Atree
baíran   v. IV ablaut  +accto bear
baírgan   v. IV ablaut  +datto hide
baírhts   adjbright
báitraba   advbitterly
báitrs   adjbitter
balgs   n. m.Ibag
balwjan   v. I weak  +datto torment
bandwa   n. f.Osign
barms   n. m.Ibosom
barn   n. n.Achild
barnisks   adjchildish
bauan   v. III weak pret.to dwell
baúr   n. m.Ison
beidan   v. I ablautto await
bi   prep. +datby
bida   n. f.Orequest
bidjan   v. V ablautto ask
bileiban   v. I ablaut  intrto remain
biudan   v. II ablautto offer
blinds   adjblind
bloþ   n. n.Ablood
boka   n. f.O(sing) letter of the alphabet; (pl) book
bokareis   n. m.JAscribe
bota   n. f.Oadvantage
briggan   v. I weak  +accto bring
brikan   v. IV ablautto break
brinnan   v. III ablaut  intrto burn
brūkjan   v. I weak  +gento use
brūks   adj. aj.i  +datuseful
brūþfaþs   n. m.Ibridegroom
bugjan   v. I weakto buy
dags   n. m.Aday
dáiljan   v. I weakto deal out
dáils   n. f.Iportion
dalaþ   advdown
dalaþa   advbelow
dáupeins   n. f.Ibaptism
daúr   n. n.Adoor
dáuþjan   v. I weakto put to death
deþs   n. f.Ideed
diups   adjdeep
dius   n. n.Awild beast
diwan   v. V ablaut  intrto die
dráibjan   v. I weakto drive
dreiban   v. I ablautto drive
drigkan   v. III ablautto drink
drus   n. m.Ifall
du   prep. +datto
dwals   adjfoolish
ei   conjthat
eisarn   n. n.Airon
fadreins   n. f.Ifamily
fagrs   adjbeautiful
fāhan   v. VII redupto seize
faheþs   n. f.Ijoy
faírguni   n. n.JAmountain
faírneis   adjold
faírraþro   advfrom afar
falþan   v. VII redupto fold
fara   n. f.Otraffic
faran   v. VI ablaut  intrto fare
fastubni   n. n.JAfasting
faúr   prep. +accfor
faúra   prep. +datbefore
faúra   advbefore
faúramaþleis   n. m.JAruler
faúrhtjan   v. I weakto fear
fáus   adj. aj.ausmall
fera   n. f.Oregion
fidwor   num. aj.ifour
fidwor tigjus   num  +genforty
fidwortaíhun   num. aj.ifourteen
fijaþwa   n. f.Ohatred
filhan   v. III ablautto hide
filu   adj. snu!j  +gengreat
fimf   num. aj.ifive
fimf tigjus   num  +genfifty
fimftaíhun   num. aj.ififteen
finþan   v. III ablaut  +accto find
fisks   n. m.Afish
fodjan   v. I weakto feed
frabugjan   v. I weak  +datto sell
fraíhnan   v. V ablaut  +gento ask
fráisan   v. VII redupto tempt
fráistubni   n. f.JOtemptation
fráiw   n. n.Aseed
frakunnan   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +datto despise
fraliusan   v. II ablaut  +datto lose
fralusts   n. f.Iloss
fram   prep. +datfrom
fraqiman   v. IV ablaut  +datto expend
fraþi   n. n.JAunderstanding
fraþjan   v. VI ablaut  +datto understand
freis   adj  +genfree
frijaþwa   n. f.Olove
frijondi   n. f.JOfriend
froþs   adjwise
fugls   n. m.Abird
fulgins   adjhidden
fullatojis   adjperfect
fulljan   v. I weak  +gento fill
fullnan   v. IV weak  +gento become full
fulls   adj. s.aj  +genfull
gabaúrþs   n. f.Ibirth
gafáurs   adj. aj.iwell-behaved
gaggan   v. VII redup  intrto go
gahráinjan   v. I weak  +gento cleanse
gahugds   n. f.Ithought
gáidw   n. n.Awant
gaírnjan   v. I weak  +gento be fain or willing
gakusts   n. f.Itest
galáubeins   n. f.Ifaith
galáubjan   v. I weakto believe
galeiks   adj  +datlike
gamáins   adj. aj.icommon
gamotjan   v. I weak  +datto meet
gamunds   n. f.Irememberance
gaqumþs   n. f.Iassembly
garūni   n. n.JAconsultation
garuns   n. f.Imarketplace
gaskafts   n. f.Icreation
gastaldan   v. VII redupto possess
gasts   n. m.Iguest
gatamjan   v. I weakto tame
gataúrþs   n. f.Idestruction
gaþarbān   v. III weak  +gento suffer want
gaþláihan   v. VII redupto cherish
gáumjan   v. I weak  +datto perceive
gáurs   adjsad
gawaírþi   n. n.JApeace
gawaúrkjan   v. I weakto make
gawi   n. n.JAregion
gawiljis   adjwilling
giba   n. f.Ogift
giban   v. V ablautto give
gistradagis   advtomorrow
goljan   v. I weakto greet
goþs   adj  +datgood
graba   n. f.Oditch
gras   n. n.Agrass
gredags   adjhungry
gretan   v. VII red.abl.  intrto weep
groba   n. f.Oden
gulþ   n. n.Agold
gulþeins   adjgolden
Gutrazda   n. f.OGothic language
hāhan   v. VII redupto hang
háiljan   v. I weak  +gento heal
háils   adjwhole
háims   n. f.Ivillage
haírdeis   n. m.JAshepherd
háitan   v. VII redup  +accto call
háiþi   n. f.JOfield
háiti   n. f.JOorder
haldan   v. VII redupto hold
halja   n. f.Ohell
handugs   adjclever
harjis   n. m.JAarmy
háubiþ   n. n.Ahead
haúrds   n. f.Idoor
haúrn   n. n.Ahorn
háusjan   v. I weakto hear
hawi   n. n.JAhay
hazjan   v. I weakto praise
her   advhere
hidre   advhither
hilpan   v. III ablaut  +gento help
himins   n. m.Aheaven
hindar   prep. +accbehind
his   pronthis (acc. hina
hláifs   n. m.Aloaf
hláiw   n. n.Agrave
hlūtrs   adjpure
hráins   adj. aj.iclean
hulþs   adj  +datgracious
hunds   n. m.Adog
hups   n. m.Ihip
huzd   n. n.Atreasure
-ƕa   conjwhether (clitic)
ƕadre   advwhither
ƕáiteis   n. m.JAwheat
ƕáiwa   conjhow
ƕan   adv(interr) when?
ƕar   advwhere
ƕarjis   pronwho
ƕas   pronwho
ƕaþar   pronwhich of two
ƕaþro   advwhence
ƕe   adv(interr) with what
ƕeila   n. f.Otime
ƕeláuþs   pron(interr) how great
ƕileiks   pronwhat sort of
ƕopan   v. VII redup  intrto boast
ibái   conjlest
ibns   adjeven
iddja   v  intr(preterite of gaggan) I went
igqar   pron(poss) of you two
ik   pronI
ikei   pronI who... (relative)
im   v  intrI am
in   prep. +datin
in   prep. +genon account of
in   prep. +accin
inna   advwithin
innana   advwithin
innaþro   advfrom within
inuh   prep. +accwithout
is   v  intrthou art
is   pronhe
ist   vis
ita   pronit
itan   v. V ablautto eat
  conjbut
iup   advupwards
iupa   advabove
izei   pron(rel) who
izwar   pron(poss) your
ja   advyea
jabái   conjif
jah   conjand
jái   interj= ja
jáidre   adv= jáind
jáinar   advyonder
jáind   advthither
jaþþe   conjand if
jer   n. n.Ayear
ju   advalready
juggs   adjyoung
juk   n. n.Ayoke
jus   pronye
jut   pronye two
jutei   pronye two who (relative)
juþan   advalready
juzei   pronye who (relative)
kalds   adjcold
kara   n. f.Ocare
karkara   n. f.Oprison
káupatjan   v. I weakto buffet
kaúrn   n. n.Agrain
kiusan   v. II ablautto choose
kniu   n. n.Aknee
kukjan   v. I weak  +datto kiss
kunþi   n. n.JAknowledge
kunþs   adj  +datknown
laggs   adjlong
lagjan   v. I weakto lay
láiba   n. f.Oremnant
láisareis   n. m.JAteacher
láiseins   n. f.Idoctrine
láisjan   v. I weakto teach (+acc of person taught and +acc of thing taught)
láists   n. m.Ifootprint
lamb   n. n.Alamb
lasiws   adjweak
lats   adjslothful
láufs   n. m.Aleaf
láun   n. n.Apay
láus   adj. aj.s  +genempty
leiƕan   v. I ablautto lend
leik   n. n.Abody
leitils   adjlittle
lekeis   n. m.JAphysician
letan   v. VII red.abl.to let
lew   n. n.Aoccasion
libān   v. III weak  intrto live
ligan   v. V ablaut  intrto lie
ligrs   n. m.Abed
lists   n. f.Icraftiness
liudan   v. II ablaut  intrto grow
liufs   adj  +datdear
ludja   n. f.Oface
magaþs   n. f.Imaid
mahteigs   adjmighty
mahts   adjpossible
máitan   v. VII redupto cut
máiþms   n. m.Agift
manags   adjmuch
manaseþs   n. f.Imankind
matjan   v. I weakto eat
mats   n. m.Imeat
maúrgins   n. m.Amorning
maúrþr   n. n.Amurder
mawi   n. f.JOmaiden
meljan   v. I weakto write
midjis   adj. s.ajmiddle
mikilaba   advgreatly
mikildūþs   n. f.Igreatness
mikils   adjgreat
misso   adv(always with pers. pron.) reciprocally
miþ   prep. +datwith
miþ   advwith
modags   adj  +datangry
mota   n. f.Ocustom
motareis   n. m.JAtoll-taker
mulda   n. f.Odust
muns   n. m.Ithought
namnjan   v. I weak  +accto name
naseins   n. f.Isalvation
nasjan   v. I weakto save
nati   n. n.JAnet
natjan   v. I weakto make wet
náus   n. m.Icorpse
náuþs   n. f.Ineed
ne   advnay
neƕa   prep. +datnigh to
neþla   n. f.Oneedle
ni   advnot
nibái   conjunless
nidwa   n. f.Orust
nih   conjand not
niman   v. IV ablautto take
nist   v= ni ist
niþjis   n. m.JAkinsman
niujis   adjnew
niun   num. aj.inine
niuntehund   numninety
niutan   v. II ablaut  +gento enjoy
nu   advnow
qens   n. f.Iwife
qiman   v. IV ablaut  intrto come
qiss   n. f.Isaying
qiþan   v. V ablaut  +accto say
qius   adjalive
qums   n. m.Iadvent
ragineis   n. m.JAcounsellor
raíhts   adjright
ráisjan   v. I weakto raise
razda   n. f.Olanguage
razn   n. n.Ahouse
reiki   n. n.JArule
riqis   n. n.Adarkness
riqizeins   adjdark
rodjan   v. I weak  intrto speak
rūna   n. f.Osecret
sa   pronthis
saei   pron(relative) who
saggws   n. m.Isong
saian   v. VII red.abl.to sow
saíhs   num. aj.isix
saíhs tigjus   num  +gensixty
saíƕan   v. V ablaut  +accto see
sáiwala   n. f.Osoul
sáiws   n. m.Isea
salt   n. n.Asalt
samaþ   advto the same place
saþs   adjfull
satjan   v. I weakto set
saúhts   n. f.Isickness
saúrga   n. f.Osorrow
sáuþs   n. m.Isacrifice
sels   adj. aj.igood
si   pronshe
sibun   num. aj.iseven
sibuntehund   numseventy
sifān   v. III weak  intrto rejoice
siggwan   v. III ablautto sing
sik   prononeself
silubr   n. n.Asilver
simle   advonce
sineigs   adjold
sinteino   advalways
sinteins   adjdaily
siponeis   n. m.JApupil
sitan   v. V ablaut  intrto sit
sitls   n. m.Aseat
siujan   v. I weakto sew
siukan   v. II ablaut  intrto be sick
siuks   adjsick
siuns   n. f.Isight
skáidan   v. VII redupto divide
skalks   n. m.Aservant
skáuns   adj. aj.ibeautiful
skeinan   v. I ablaut  intrto shine
skeirs   adj. aj.iclear
skip   n. n.Aship
skulds   adj  +datowing
slaúhts   n. f.Islaughter
slepan   v. VII redup  intrto sleep
smals   adjsmall
snáiws   n. m.Asnow
snutrs   adjwise
so   pronthe (f.)
sokjan   v. I weak  +accto seek
sokns   n. f.Isearch
spráuto   advquickly
stáins   n. m.Astone
standan   v. VI ablaut  intrto stand
staþs   n. m.Iplace
staua   n. f.Ojudgement
stibna   n. f.Ovoice
stojan   v. I weakto judge
stráujan   v. I weakto strew
striks   n. m.Istroke
sums   pron(indefinite) someone
sunja   n. f.Otruth
sunjaba   advtruly
sunjis   adjtrue
sunsei   conjas soon as
sutis   adj. aj.zsweet
swaei   conjso that
swaláuþs   pronso great
swaleiks   pronsuch
swarts   adjblack
swaswe   conjjust like
swe   conjlike
sweiban   v. I ablaut  intrto cease
swers   adj  +dathonored
swikunþs   adj  +datmanifest
swinþs   adjstrong
swogatjan   v. I weakto sigh
tagl   n. n.Ahair
tagr   n. n.Atear
taíhun   num. aj.iten
taíhuntaíhund   num  +genhundred
taíhuntehund   num  +genhundred
táikns   n. f.Itoken
taui   n. n.JAdeed
táujan   v. I weak  +accto do
tekan   v. VII red.abl.  +datto touch
þadei   advwhither
þagkjan   v. I weakto think
þaírh   prep. +accthrough
þan   conjbut
þande   conjif
þannu   conjtherefore
þar   advthere
þarei   adv(relative) where
þata   pronthat
þatei   conjthat
þaúrban   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +gento need
þaúrfts   n. f.Ineed
þeihan   v. I ablaut  intrto thrive
þiubi   n. n.JAtheft
þiuda   n. f.Opeople
þiudangardi   n. f.JOkingdom
þiudans   n. m.Aking
þius   n. m.Aservant
þiwi   n. f.JOmaidservant
þlaúhs   n. m.Iflight
þliuhan   v. II ablautto flee
þragjan   v. I weak  intrto run
þreis   num. 3three
þreis tigjus   num  +genthirty
þridjo   advfor the third time
þū   pronthou
þugkjan   v. I weak  intrto seem
þūsundi   num. sf  +genthousand
þwahan   v. VI ablautto wash
tigjus   num  +gen-ty (suffix for decades 20-60)
tils   adjfit
timrjan   v. I weakto build
tiuhan   v. II ablautto lead
triu   n. n.Atree
twaddje   numof two
twái   num. 2two
twái tigjus   num  +gentwenty
twalif   num. aj.itwelve
-u   part(interrogative particle
ubils   adjevil
ubiltojis   adjevil-doing
uf   prep. +datunder
ufar   prep. +datover
ufarmeli   n. n.JAsuperscription
ufháusjan   v. I weak  +datto submit
ugkar   pronof us two
-uh   conj(enclitic) but
und   prep. +accunto
und   prep. +datfor
undar   prep. +accunder
undaro   prep. +datunder
unkunþs   adj  +datunknown
unsar   pronour
unsibjis   adjlawless
unte   conjuntil
unweis   adj. aj.sunlearned
us   prep. +datout
uskiusan   v. II ablaut(+acc) to choose out
ūta   advoutside
wadi   n. n.JApledge
waian   v. VII red.abl.to blow
waír   n. m.Aman
waírpan   v. III ablaut  +acc/datto throw
waírþan   v. III ablaut  intrto become
waírþs   adj  +genworthy
wakan   v. VI ablaut  intrto wake
waldufni   n. n.JApower
waljan   v. I weakto choose
wamba   n. f.Obelly
wandjan   v. I weakto turn
wans   adj  +genlacking
warjan   v. I weakto forbid
wasjan   v. I weakto clothe
wasti   n. f.JOclothing
waúrd   n. n.Aword
waúrkjan   v. I weak  +accto work
waúrms   n. m.Aserpent
waúrstw   n. n.Awork
waúrts   n. f.Iroot
weihan   v. I ablautto fight
weihs   adjholy
wein   n. n.Awine
weis   pronwe
weizei   pronwe who (relative)
wenjan   v. I weakto hope
wens   n. f.Ihope
wigs   n. m.Away
wilþeis   adjwild
winds   n. m.Awind
wisan   v. V ablaut  intrto be
wit   pronwe two
witei   pronwe two who (relative)
wiþra   prep. +accagainst
wiþrawaírþo   adv  +datcontrariwise
wiþrawaírþs   adj  +datopposite
wrohs   n. f.Iaccusation
wulfs   n. m.Awolf
wundufni   n. f.JOwound
 

Unit 9

9.1) WH-Questions

Last unit we introduced yes/no questions. The other common type of question, the wh-question, is expressed in Gothic with pronouns that begin with ƕ.

The simple interrogative pronoun ƕas (who) has in the three genders: ƕas, ƕō, ƕa. It occurs only in the singular, and the oblique cases have the same endings as the definite article.

1. Ƕas þana wulf saƕ? Who saw the wolf?
2. Ƕana sa wulfs saƕ? Whom did the wolf see?
3. Ƕa saƕt? What did you see?

Other interrogative pronouns attested include:

ƕan when
ƕaþar which of two (attested only in nom. sing. masc. and neut.)
ƕar where
ƕadrē whither, to where
ƕarjis which of many (declined like midjis, except neut. nom. sing. is always ƕarjata, never **ƕari)
ƕē how
ƕēláuþs how great (stem ƕēláud-, declined like frōþs)
ƕileiks what sort of (declined like galeiks)

Some of these have demonstrative equivalents, such as swaleiks (such), swaláuþs (so great). They are declined the same as their ƕ- counterparts.

9.2) Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns for the third person are formed by adding -ei to the definite article: saei (from sa), sōei (from ), þatei (from þata). If the definite form ends in s, the s is voiced to z: þizei (<= þis), þizōzei (<= þizōs), etc. Typically, this is combined with the definite article, as:

4. Ƕa gaft þamma þanei qiþiþ armana? What did you give to him whom thou call poor?
5. Saƕ ik þata þizei náust. I saw what you enjoyed.

But sometimes these are contracted, and the case of the relative pronoun may agree with its role in either clause:

6. Ƕa gaft þammei qiþiþ armana? What did you give to whom thou call poor?
7. Saƕ ik þizei náust. I saw what you enjoyed.

First and second person relative pronouns are formed by adding -ei to the personal pronoun, as:

8. Standa in háiþjái ikei saísō ƕáiti. I stand in the field, I who sowed wheat.
9. Drigkats miþ izái juzei in þamma razna bauats. You two are drinking with her, you who live in this house.

In addition to pronouns, the -ei suffix can be added to certain WH-question words with a change of ƕ to þ, e.g. interrogative ƕar vs. relative þar-ei, ƕadrē vs. þad-ei. An exception to the change of ƕ to þ is ƕáiwa (how), which does not change form when used as a conjunction.

9.3) Class I Weak Verbs

In the present tense, most of these verbs have singular personal endings in -ja, -eis, -eiþ. (For the attested forms mēliþ, ga-mēliþ, see the section on participles in Unit 14.)

Up until now, in the preterite tense, we have seen only strong verbs. Most Gothic weak verbs have the same endings in the present active indicative as strong verbs have, but form their preterites with a suffix rather than using ablaut or reduplication. Weak verbs come in several conjugations.

The first weak conjugation has a stem in -j and distinguishes short-stem from long-stem forms. The examples of stōjan (to judge) and sōkjan (to seek) differ in the following persons and numbers in the present tense:

Singular(short stem)(long stem)
2nd stōjis thou judge sōkeis thou seek
3rd stōjiþ s/he judges sōkeiþ s/he seeks
Plural
2nd stōjiþ you (pl) judge sōkeiþ you (pl) seek

In the other persons and numbers, sōkjan has the same endings as strong verbs: (ik) sōkja, (wit) sōkjōs, (jut) sōkjats, etc. From the table we notice that stōjan, the short-stem verb, has endings that resemble the strong verbs we're already familiar with, while sōkjan, the long-stem verb, differs in some places.

The preterites of these verbs are:

stauida I judged
sōkida I sought

Notice the sound change of ō to au before another vowel. The d in these preterites is the same d that we find in English past tenses of regular (weak) verbs. In the singular, the endings for the three persons are:

1st stauida sōkida
2nd stauidēs sōkidēs
3rd stauida sōkida

Whereas in the dual and plural, the stems become stauidēd-, sōkidēd- and the usual preterite endings apply (stauidēdu, stauidēduts; stauidēdum, etc).

The past participles of these verbs are stauiþs, sōkiþs.

9.4) Irregular Class I Weak Preterites

This conjugation contains some verbs with irregular preterites:

Infinitive Pret. Past Pple.
briggan (to bring) brāhta brāhts
brūkjan (to use) brūhta brūhts
bugjan (to buy) baúhta baúhts
káupatjan (to buffet) káupasta káupatiþs
þagkjan (to think) þāhta þāhts
þugkjan(to seem) þūhta þūhts
waúrkjan (to work) waúrhta waúrhts

The strong verb gaggan has an irregular preterite iddja, inflected as: iddja, iddjēs, iddja; iddjēdu, iddjēduts; iddjēdum, iddjēduþ, iddjēdun. Additionally, one instance of a weak preterite gaggida is known.

9.5) Class I Weak Verb Vocabulary

Some more Class I weak verbs include:

arjan to plough
áugjan to show (long-stem)
dáiljan to deal out (long-stem)
dáuþjan to kill, put to death (long-stem)
dráibjan to trouble (long-stem)
faúrhtjan to fear (long-stem)
fōdjan to feed (long-stem)
ga-mōtjan to meet (long-stem)
ga-tamjan to tame
gáumjan to perceive (long-stem)
gōljan to greet (long-stem)
háiljan to heal (long-stem)
háusjan to hear (long-stem)
hazjan to praise
kukjan to kiss
lagjan to lay
láisjan to teach (long-stem)
matjan to eat
mēljan to write (long-stem)
namnjan to name (long-stem)
nasjan to save
natjan to wet
ráisjan to raise (long-stem)
rōdjan to speak (long-stem)
satjan to set
siujan to sew (pret. siwida)
stráujan to strew (pret. strawida)
swōgatjan to sigh (long-stem)
táujan to do, make (pret. tawida)
timrjan to build
þragjan to run
waljan to choose
wandjan to turn (long-stem)
warjan to forbid
wasjan to clothe
wēnjan to hope (long-stem)

Verbs ending in -áujan, -iujan change the u to w in the preterite.

The verb þugkjan has a usage we still retain as an archaicism in English: the word "methinks" dates back from a time before two different words, the equivalents of Gothic þagkjan and þugkjan, merged together and the latter meaning of "seem" was lost except in the expression "me thinks", which literally means "seems to me". Gothic still has this construct, expressed as þugkeiþ mis. It is also possible to use another pronoun or even a noun for the dative. This "methinks construction" stands in for meanings where in English we would simply say "I think", "you think", etc.

9.6) Adverbs; Reciprocal Adverb

Most adverbs are formed from adjectives by appending -ba, for example báitraba (bitterly) from báitrs; sunjaba (truly) from sunjis; agluba (difficultly) from aglus. But also note that the idiom bi sunjái, used adverbially, means the same thing as sunjaba and occurs much more frequently.

Some adverbs pertaining to motion to a place have a sufix or -drē: hidrē (hither); jáidrē, jáind (thither); ƕaþ, ƕadrē (whither); samaþ (to the same place); dalaþ (down); aljaþ (elsewhither). Others, such as iup (up), do not.

Adverbs pertaining to motion from a place have one of the suffixes -na or -þrō. Faírraþrō (from afar); innana, innaþrō (from within); ƕaþrō (whence); etc.

Adverbs pertaining to rest or fixed position, end in -r or -a: hēr (here), þar (there), jáinar (yonder), ƕar (where), aljar (elsewhere), inna (in), faúra (before), afta (behind), iupa (above), dalaþa (below), ūta (outside).

The adverb aftra once meant "back(wards)", which is attested a few times in senses such as "looking back", "returning". Perhaps due to the latter of those usages, semantic changes that were occurring before the corpus was written had made this adverb the most usual way to say "again".

Simple adverbs of time exist: ƕan (when), þan (then), nu (now), ju (already), áir (early). Other temporal adverb equivalents use the oblique cases of nouns pertaining to time: accusative ni áiw (never), genitive gistra-dagis (tomorrow), dative himma daga (today), etc. Pronominal constructs such as fram himma nu (from now on) also exist. Himma is a dative singular of a pronoun which is not well attested; its nominative is reconstructed as *his with the meaning "this".

Some adverbial forms are left over from the old Indo-European ablative, such as sinteinō (continually) from sinteins; spráutō (quickly) from spráuts; simlē (once); þridjō (for the third time). This ending is also present in missō, which forms reciprocal constructs:

10. Jah qēþun du sis missō... And they said to one another...

9.7) Examples of Material from This Unit

11. Warida sa láisareis sipōni is unwijaba kiusan.The teacher forbade his student from choosing unwisely.
12. Baúhta-h si mat in þizái garunái.And she bought meat in the market.
13. Sa waír jah sō qinō kukidēdun, untē im was sunjaba frijaþwa The man and the woman kissed because they truly had love. (We will cover the declension of qinō in unit 11.)
14. Þái skalkōs iddjēdun jáinar du þamma garda jah þans hundans fōdidēdun.The servants went yonder to the house and fed the dogs.
15. Hidrē jah jáidrē wandeiþ þata skip ana þamma sáiwa.Hither and thither turns the ship upon the sea.
Translate these from Gothic:
16. Nist halja alja þōei unsis misso gawaúrkjam. (The verb gawaúrkjan is a more common synonym of waúrkjan.)
17. Stōjis-u mik ubiltōjana fram dēdim þáim þōzei ni tawida? (Take ubiltōjis as a noun meaning "evildoer". Fram has the same meaning here as in sentence 8.11.)
18. Þugkeiþ-u þus ei sō þiudangardi ist faírraþrō fagra?
19. Þugkjand þái gasteis sēljái.
20. Fram himma nu ni áiw dráibja ins aftra. (Translate this as a future tense; Gothic uses present tense verbs to indicate future actions.)

Answers



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