Vocabulary

af   prep. +datof
afar   prep. +accafter
agis   n. n.Afright
aglus   adj  +dathard
ahtáu   num. aj.ieight
aƕa   n. f.Oriver
aíƕs   n. m.Ahorse
áins   num. 1one
aírþa   n. f.Oearth
aírþeins   adjearthly
áiþs   n. m.Aoath
áiweins   adjeternal
áiws   n. m.Atime
ak   conjbut
akran   n. n.Afruit
akrs   n. m.Afield
alan   v. VI ablaut  intrto grow
aljis   adjother
alls   adj. s.ajall
ana   prep. +daton
anaháitan   v. VII redup(+acc) to call on
and   prep. +accalong
andhafjan   v. VI ablaut  +datto answer
ansteigs   adj  +datgracious
arms   adjpoor
asts   n. m.Abranch
aþþan   conjbut
attekan   v. VII red.abl.  +datto touch
áudags   adjblessed
áuþida   n. f.Owilderness
bagms   n. m.Atree
baírgan   v. IV ablaut  +datto hide
baírhts   adjbright
báitrs   adjbitter
balwjan   v. I weak  +datto torment
bandwa   n. f.Osign
barn   n. n.Achild
barnisks   adjchildish
bauan   v. III weak pret.to dwell
beidan   v. I ablautto await
bi   prep. +datby
bida   n. f.Orequest
bidjan   v. V ablautto ask
bileiban   v. I ablaut  intrto remain
blinds   adjblind
bloþ   n. n.Ablood
boka   n. f.O(sing) letter of the alphabet; (pl) book
bota   n. f.Oadvantage
brūks   adj. aj.i  +datuseful
dags   n. m.Aday
daúr   n. n.Adoor
diups   adjdeep
dius   n. n.Awild beast
diwan   v. V ablaut  intrto die
dreiban   v. I ablautto drive
drigkan   v. III ablautto drink
du   prep. +datto
dwals   adjfoolish
ei   conjthat
eisarn   n. n.Airon
fagrs   adjbeautiful
fara   n. f.Otraffic
faran   v. VI ablaut  intrto fare
fera   n. f.Oregion
fidwor   num. aj.ifour
fijaþwa   n. f.Ohatred
filhan   v. III ablautto hide
fimf   num. aj.ifive
finþan   v. III ablaut  +accto find
fisks   n. m.Afish
frabugjan   v. I weak  +datto sell
fraíhnan   v. V ablaut  +gento ask
frakunnan   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +datto despise
fraliusan   v. II ablaut  +datto lose
fraqiman   v. IV ablaut  +datto expend
fraþjan   v. VI ablaut  +datto understand
frijaþwa   n. f.Olove
froþs   adjwise
fugls   n. m.Abird
fulgins   adjhidden
fulls   adj. s.aj  +genfull
gaggan   v. VII redup  intrto go
galáubjan   v. I weakto believe
galeiks   adj  +datlike
gáumjan   v. I weak  +datto perceive
gáurs   adjsad
giba   n. f.Ogift
giban   v. V ablautto give
goþs   adj  +datgood
graba   n. f.Oditch
gras   n. n.Agrass
gredags   adjhungry
gretan   v. VII red.abl.  intrto weep
groba   n. f.Oden
gulþ   n. n.Agold
gulþeins   adjgolden
Gutrazda   n. f.OGothic language
háils   adjwhole
halja   n. f.Ohell
handugs   adjclever
háubiþ   n. n.Ahead
haúrn   n. n.Ahorn
háusjan   v. I weakto hear
himins   n. m.Aheaven
hláifs   n. m.Aloaf
hlūtrs   adjpure
hulþs   adj  +datgracious
hunds   n. m.Adog
huzd   n. n.Atreasure
ƕeila   n. f.Otime
ibns   adjeven
ik   pronI
im   v  intrI am
in   prep. +datin
is   v  intrthou art
ist   vis
itan   v. V ablautto eat
  conjbut
jah   conjand
jer   n. n.Ayear
juggs   adjyoung
juk   n. n.Ayoke
kalds   adjcold
kara   n. f.Ocare
karkara   n. f.Oprison
kaúrn   n. n.Agrain
kukjan   v. I weak  +datto kiss
kunþs   adj  +datknown
laggs   adjlong
láiba   n. f.Oremnant
lamb   n. n.Alamb
lats   adjslothful
láufs   n. m.Aleaf
láun   n. n.Apay
leik   n. n.Abody
leitils   adjlittle
libān   v. III weak  intrto live
ligan   v. V ablaut  intrto lie
ligrs   n. m.Abed
liufs   adj  +datdear
ludja   n. f.Oface
mahteigs   adjmighty
mahts   adjpossible
máiþms   n. m.Agift
manags   adjmuch
maúrgins   n. m.Amorning
maúrþr   n. n.Amurder
mikils   adjgreat
modags   adj  +datangry
mota   n. f.Ocustom
mulda   n. f.Odust
neþla   n. f.Oneedle
ni   advnot
nidwa   n. f.Orust
niman   v. IV ablautto take
nist   v= ni ist
niun   num. aj.inine
qiman   v. IV ablaut  intrto come
qiþan   v. V ablaut  +accto say
raíhts   adjright
razda   n. f.Olanguage
razn   n. n.Ahouse
riqis   n. n.Adarkness
riqizeins   adjdark
rūna   n. f.Osecret
sa   pronthis
saian   v. VII red.abl.to sow
saíhs   num. aj.isix
saíƕan   v. V ablaut  +accto see
sáiwala   n. f.Osoul
salt   n. n.Asalt
saþs   adjfull
saúrga   n. f.Osorrow
sibun   num. aj.iseven
sifān   v. III weak  intrto rejoice
siggwan   v. III ablautto sing
silubr   n. n.Asilver
sineigs   adjold
sinteins   adjdaily
sitan   v. V ablaut  intrto sit
sitls   n. m.Aseat
siuks   adjsick
skalks   n. m.Aservant
skip   n. n.Aship
skulds   adj  +datowing
slepan   v. VII redup  intrto sleep
smals   adjsmall
snutrs   adjwise
so   pronthe (f.)
stáins   n. m.Astone
standan   v. VI ablaut  intrto stand
staua   n. f.Ojudgement
stibna   n. f.Ovoice
sums   pron(indefinite) someone
sunja   n. f.Otruth
swarts   adjblack
sweiban   v. I ablaut  intrto cease
swers   adj  +dathonored
swikunþs   adj  +datmanifest
swinþs   adjstrong
tagl   n. n.Ahair
tagr   n. n.Atear
taíhun   num. aj.iten
táujan   v. I weak  +accto do
tekan   v. VII red.abl.  +datto touch
þande   conjif
þata   pronthat
þeihan   v. I ablaut  intrto thrive
þiuda   n. f.Opeople
þiudans   n. m.Aking
þreis   num. 3three
þū   pronthou
tils   adjfit
twái   num. 2two
ubils   adjevil
ufháusjan   v. I weak  +datto submit
unkunþs   adj  +datunknown
unte   conjuntil
unweis   adj. aj.sunlearned
uskiusan   v. II ablaut(+acc) to choose out
waírpan   v. III ablaut  +acc/datto throw
waírþan   v. III ablaut  intrto become
waírþs   adj  +genworthy
wakan   v. VI ablaut  intrto wake
wamba   n. f.Obelly
waúrd   n. n.Aword
waúrms   n. m.Aserpent
weihan   v. I ablautto fight
weihs   adjholy
wein   n. n.Awine
wenjan   v. I weakto hope
wigs   n. m.Away
winds   n. m.Awind
wisan   v. V ablaut  intrto be
wiþrawaírþo   adv  +datcontrariwise
wiþrawaírþs   adj  +datopposite
wulfs   n. m.Awolf
 

Unit 4

4.1) Feminine Ō-Stem Nouns

So far, we've seen only masculine and neuter nouns. A great many feminine nouns in Gothic belong to the ō-declension, which is cognate to the ā-declension of Latin and Greek. Here's the declension using the example of the word giba (gift):

Singular
Nom sō giba the gift
Acc þō giba the gift
Gen þizōs gibōs of the gift
Dat þizái gibái to/for the gift
Plural
Nom Acc þōs gibōs the gifts
Gen þizō gibō of the gifts
Dat þáim gibōm to/for the gifts

(As with most nouns, the vocative singular of giba would be the same as the accusative, and in the plural it would be the same as the nominative.)

Some other nouns declined like giba include:

aƕa river
aírþa earth
áuþida wilderness, desert
bandwa sign, token
bida request
bōka letter
bōta advantage
fara traffic, means of going
fēra country, region
fijaþwa hatred
frijaþwa love
graba ditch
groba cave, hole, den
Gutrazda Gothic language
halja hell
habana harbor
ƕeila time
kara care
karkara prison
láiba remnant
ludja face
mōta custom-house
mulda dust
nēþla needle
nidwa rust
razda language
rūna mystery
sáiwala soul
saúrga sorrow
staua judgement
stibna voice
sunja truth
þiuda people
wamba womb

4.2) Adjectives in Gothic: Strong Declension of Pure A-Stems

Like nouns, the adjectives have different declensions and change their endings for all cases. But unlike nouns, they are declined in two ways, called strong and weak. We'll cover the weak declension in unit 11.

Here's the strong declension of mikils (great, large), an a-stem adjective, in the singular:

Masculine
Nom mikils þiudans a great king (subject)
Acc mikilana þiudan a great king (direct object)
Gen mikilis þiudanis of a great king
Dat mikilamma þiudana to/for a great king
Feminine
Nom Acc mikila aƕa a great river
Gen mikiláizōs aƕōs of a great river
Dat mikilái aƕái to/for a great river
Neuter
Nom Acc mikil(ata) huzd a great treasure
Gen mikilis huzdis of a great treasure
Dat mikilamma huzda to/for a great treasure

In the neuter nominative singular, the pronominal form of adjectives (mikilata here) is never used predicatively. So, while it is perfectly correct to say either mikil huzd beidiþ (a great treasure awaits) or mikilata huzd beidiþ, it is not correct to say **þata huzd ist mikilata. You would say þata huzd ist mikil.

The plurals of this adjective are:

Masculine
Nom mikilái þiudanōs great kings (subject)
Acc mikilans þiudanans great kings (direct object)
Gen mikiláizē þiudanē of great kings
Dat mikiláim þiudanam to/for great kings
Feminine
Nom Acc mikilōs aƕōs great rivers
Gen mikiláizō aƕō of great rivers
Dat mikiláim aƕōm to/for a great river
Neuter
Nom Acc mikila huzda great treasures
Gen mikiláizē huzdē of a great treasure
Dat mikiláim huzdam to/for a great treasure

Far and away the majority of Gothic adjectives are declined like mikils, including the number one (áins), and the following list:

aírþeins earthly
áiweins eternal
alls all
arms poor
áudags happy, blessed
baírhts bright
báitrs bitter
barnisks childish
blinds blind
diups deep
dwals foolish
fagrs beautiful
frōþs wise (stem frōd-)
fulgins hidden
fulls full
galeiks like
gáurs sad
grēdags hungry
gulþeins golden
háils whole
handugs wise
hlūtrs pure
ibns even
juggs young
kalds cold
laggs long
lats slothful
leitils little
mahteigs mighty
mahts possible
manags much
raíhts right
saþs full (stem sad-)
sineigs old
sinteins everyday
siuks sick
smals small
snutrs wise
sums some (this is actually a pronoun)
swarts black
swinþs strong
tils fit
ubils evil
unweis unlearned
waírþs worthy
weihs holy

Adjectives agree with the number, gender, and case of their nouns with few exceptions. When referring to a mixture of masculine and feminine entities, adjectives take either the neuter plural or the masculine plural; when used with nouns that refer to a multitude of people, the masculine plural is usual, even if the noun is singular and/or feminine.

Stems ending in -d with nom. masc. sing. in -þs have the voiced d in the oblique cases as well as the nom. fem. forms and neut. pl., and the unvoiced þ in the word final position or before s. The following table gives the declension of báuþs (deaf; mute; dull):

 Masc.Fem.Neut.
Singular
Nom.báuþsbáudabáuþ
Acc.báudanabáudabáuþ
Gen.báudisbáudáizēbáudis
Dat.báudammabáudáibáudamma
Plural
Nom.báudáibáudōsbáuda
Acc.báudansbáudōsbáuda
Gen.báudáizēbáudáizōbáudáizē
Dat.báudáimbáudáimbáudáim

Words that should end in þ are every now and then attested in d, for example gōd salt; iþ jabái salt báud waírþiþ, ƕē gasupōda? "Salt is good, but if the salt becomes bland, with what is it seasoned?" where we would have expected gōþ and báuþ for the neuter adjectives (for now, don't worry too much about the unfamiliar grammatical features).

4.3) Verbs Governing the Dative

Some verbs take their direct object in the dative, instead of the more usual accusative. This includes most notably waírpan (to throw) and its compounds, as well as:

andhafjan to answer
baírgan to keep, preserve
balwjan to torment
frabugjan to sell
frakunnan to despise
fraliusan to lose
fraqiman to spend, consume
fraþjan to understand
gáumjan to perceive
kukjan to kiss
(at)tēkan to touch
ufháusjan to obey

A few verbs take either an accusative or a dative with a difference in meaning:

anaháitan +acc to invoke
anaháitan+dat to scold
uskiusan +acc to test, prove
uskiusan+dat to reject

The verb háusjan (to hear) usually takes a dative or a genitive, but occasionally takes an accusative.

4.4) Adjectives Governing the Dative

Many adjectives also govern the dative, such as:

aglus difficult
ansteigs gracious
brūks useful
gōþs good (stem gōd-)
hulþs gracious
kunþs known
liufs dear (stem liub-)
mōdags angry
skulds owing
swērs honored
swikunþs manifest
unkunþs unknown
wiþrawaírþs opposite

4.5) A Tale in Gothic

Now that we have enough vocabulary and grammar, here is some Gothic reading in the form of a story. Since there aren't many attested works in Gothic, the following story is based on an original tale by a friend of this site's admin.

1. Waúrms bauiþ fulgins in riqizeinamma razna.A dragon lives hidden in a dark house.
2. Þizái þiudái ist mikil agis þis waúrmis.The people have a great fear of this dragon.
3. Galáubjand ei sa ist ubil dius af haljái.They believe that he is an evil beast from hell.
4. Iþ ist gōþs waúrms.But he is a good dragon.
5. Managa fagra akrana aland in þamma razna þis waúrmis.Many beautiful fruits grow in the house of the dragon.
6. Iþ þata razn ist mikil, jah nist aljis waúrms in þamma razna.But the house is big, and there is no other dragon in the house.
7. Ainamma daga, gaggiþ sa waúrms af þamma razna.One day, the dragon goes from the house.
8. Qiþiþ, "ni sweiba untē finþa aljana galeikana waúrm."He says, "I will not stop until I find another alike dragon."
9. Fariþ jah fariþ and laggana wig.He goes and goes a long way.
10. Managái dagōs waírþand iþ sa waúrms fariþ jah slēpiþ, fariþ jah slēpiþ.Many days pass but the dragon goes and sleeps, goes and sleeps.
11. Finþiþ áinis dagis mikila aƕa.One day he finds a great river.
12. Bi þizái aƕái ist riqizeina grōba.By the river is a dark cave.
13. Gaggiþ sa waúrms in þō grōba jah grētiþ áinaha.The dragon goes into the cave and cries alone.
14. Iþ háuseiþ sumamma.But he hears something.
15. Bauand managái gōdái waúrmōs in þizái grōbái!Many good dragons live in the cave!
16. Allái þái waúrmōs sifand jah siggwand.All the dragons rejoice and sing.

Notes:



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