Vocabulary

af   prep. +datof
afar   prep. +accafter
agis   n. n.Afright
aglus   adj  +dathard
ahtáu   num. aj.ieight
ahtáutehund   numeighty
aƕa   n. f.Oriver
aíƕs   n. m.Ahorse
áinlif   num. aj.ieleven
áins   num. 1one
aírþa   n. f.Oearth
aírþeins   adjearthly
aírzeis   adjastray
áiþs   n. m.Aoath
áiweins   adjeternal
áiws   n. m.Atime
ak   conjbut
akran   n. n.Afruit
akrs   n. m.Afield
alan   v. VI ablaut  intrto grow
aljis   adjother
alls   adj. s.ajall
alþeis   adjold
ana   prep. +daton
anaháitan   v. VII redup(+acc) to call on
and   prep. +accalong
andastaþjis   n. m.JAadversary
andbahti   n. n.JAservice
andeis   n. m.JAend
andhafjan   v. VI ablaut  +datto answer
ansteigs   adj  +datgracious
arbi   n. n.JAheritage
arms   adjpoor
asneis   n. m.JAservant
asts   n. m.Abranch
aþþan   conjbut
attekan   v. VII red.abl.  +datto touch
áudags   adjblessed
aúrkeis   n. m.JAjug
áuþida   n. f.Owilderness
badi   n. n.JAbed
bagms   n. m.Atree
baíran   v. IV ablaut  +accto bear
baírgan   v. IV ablaut  +datto hide
baírhts   adjbright
báitrs   adjbitter
balwjan   v. I weak  +datto torment
bandwa   n. f.Osign
barn   n. n.Achild
barnisks   adjchildish
bauan   v. III weak pret.to dwell
beidan   v. I ablautto await
bi   prep. +datby
bida   n. f.Orequest
bidjan   v. V ablautto ask
bileiban   v. I ablaut  intrto remain
biudan   v. II ablautto offer
blinds   adjblind
bloþ   n. n.Ablood
boka   n. f.O(sing) letter of the alphabet; (pl) book
bokareis   n. m.JAscribe
bota   n. f.Oadvantage
brikan   v. IV ablautto break
brinnan   v. III ablaut  intrto burn
brūkjan   v. I weak  +gento use
brūks   adj. aj.i  +datuseful
dags   n. m.Aday
daúr   n. n.Adoor
diups   adjdeep
dius   n. n.Awild beast
diwan   v. V ablaut  intrto die
dreiban   v. I ablautto drive
drigkan   v. III ablautto drink
du   prep. +datto
dwals   adjfoolish
ei   conjthat
eisarn   n. n.Airon
fagrs   adjbeautiful
faírguni   n. n.JAmountain
faírneis   adjold
fara   n. f.Otraffic
faran   v. VI ablaut  intrto fare
fastubni   n. n.JAfasting
faúramaþleis   n. m.JAruler
fáus   adj. aj.ausmall
fera   n. f.Oregion
fidwor   num. aj.ifour
fidwor tigjus   num  +genforty
fidwortaíhun   num. aj.ifourteen
fijaþwa   n. f.Ohatred
filhan   v. III ablautto hide
filu   adj. snu!j  +gengreat
fimf   num. aj.ifive
fimf tigjus   num  +genfifty
fimftaíhun   num. aj.ififteen
finþan   v. III ablaut  +accto find
fisks   n. m.Afish
frabugjan   v. I weak  +datto sell
fraíhnan   v. V ablaut  +gento ask
fráistubni   n. f.JOtemptation
fráiw   n. n.Aseed
frakunnan   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +datto despise
fraliusan   v. II ablaut  +datto lose
fram   prep. +datfrom
fraqiman   v. IV ablaut  +datto expend
fraþi   n. n.JAunderstanding
fraþjan   v. VI ablaut  +datto understand
freis   adj  +genfree
frijaþwa   n. f.Olove
frijondi   n. f.JOfriend
froþs   adjwise
fugls   n. m.Abird
fulgins   adjhidden
fullatojis   adjperfect
fulljan   v. I weak  +gento fill
fullnan   v. IV weak  +gento become full
fulls   adj. s.aj  +genfull
gaggan   v. VII redup  intrto go
gahráinjan   v. I weak  +gento cleanse
gáidw   n. n.Awant
gaírnjan   v. I weak  +gento be fain or willing
galáubjan   v. I weakto believe
galeiks   adj  +datlike
garūni   n. n.JAconsultation
gaþarbān   v. III weak  +gento suffer want
gáumjan   v. I weak  +datto perceive
gáurs   adjsad
gawaírþi   n. n.JApeace
gawi   n. n.JAregion
gawiljis   adjwilling
giba   n. f.Ogift
giban   v. V ablautto give
goþs   adj  +datgood
graba   n. f.Oditch
gras   n. n.Agrass
gredags   adjhungry
gretan   v. VII red.abl.  intrto weep
groba   n. f.Oden
gulþ   n. n.Agold
gulþeins   adjgolden
Gutrazda   n. f.OGothic language
háiljan   v. I weak  +gento heal
háils   adjwhole
haírdeis   n. m.JAshepherd
háiþi   n. f.JOfield
háiti   n. f.JOorder
halja   n. f.Ohell
handugs   adjclever
harjis   n. m.JAarmy
háubiþ   n. n.Ahead
haúrn   n. n.Ahorn
háusjan   v. I weakto hear
hawi   n. n.JAhay
hilpan   v. III ablaut  +gento help
himins   n. m.Aheaven
hláifs   n. m.Aloaf
hláiw   n. n.Agrave
hlūtrs   adjpure
hulþs   adj  +datgracious
hunds   n. m.Adog
huzd   n. n.Atreasure
ƕáiteis   n. m.JAwheat
ƕeila   n. f.Otime
ibns   adjeven
ik   pronI
im   v  intrI am
in   prep. +datin
is   v  intrthou art
ist   vis
itan   v. V ablautto eat
  conjbut
jah   conjand
jer   n. n.Ayear
juggs   adjyoung
juk   n. n.Ayoke
juþan   advalready
kalds   adjcold
kara   n. f.Ocare
karkara   n. f.Oprison
kaúrn   n. n.Agrain
kiusan   v. II ablautto choose
kniu   n. n.Aknee
kukjan   v. I weak  +datto kiss
kunþi   n. n.JAknowledge
kunþs   adj  +datknown
laggs   adjlong
láiba   n. f.Oremnant
láisareis   n. m.JAteacher
lamb   n. n.Alamb
lasiws   adjweak
lats   adjslothful
láufs   n. m.Aleaf
láun   n. n.Apay
láus   adj. aj.s  +genempty
leiƕan   v. I ablautto lend
leik   n. n.Abody
leitils   adjlittle
lekeis   n. m.JAphysician
lew   n. n.Aoccasion
libān   v. III weak  intrto live
ligan   v. V ablaut  intrto lie
ligrs   n. m.Abed
liudan   v. II ablaut  intrto grow
liufs   adj  +datdear
ludja   n. f.Oface
mahteigs   adjmighty
mahts   adjpossible
máiþms   n. m.Agift
manags   adjmuch
maúrgins   n. m.Amorning
maúrþr   n. n.Amurder
mawi   n. f.JOmaiden
midjis   adj. s.ajmiddle
mikils   adjgreat
miþ   advwith
modags   adj  +datangry
mota   n. f.Ocustom
motareis   n. m.JAtoll-taker
mulda   n. f.Odust
nati   n. n.JAnet
neƕa   prep. +datnigh to
neþla   n. f.Oneedle
ni   advnot
nidwa   n. f.Orust
niman   v. IV ablautto take
nist   v= ni ist
niþjis   n. m.JAkinsman
niujis   adjnew
niun   num. aj.inine
niuntehund   numninety
niutan   v. II ablaut  +gento enjoy
nu   advnow
qiman   v. IV ablaut  intrto come
qiþan   v. V ablaut  +accto say
qius   adjalive
ragineis   n. m.JAcounsellor
raíhts   adjright
razda   n. f.Olanguage
razn   n. n.Ahouse
reiki   n. n.JArule
riqis   n. n.Adarkness
riqizeins   adjdark
rūna   n. f.Osecret
sa   pronthis
saian   v. VII red.abl.to sow
saíhs   num. aj.isix
saíhs tigjus   num  +gensixty
saíƕan   v. V ablaut  +accto see
sáiwala   n. f.Osoul
salt   n. n.Asalt
saþs   adjfull
saúrga   n. f.Osorrow
sibun   num. aj.iseven
sibuntehund   numseventy
sifān   v. III weak  intrto rejoice
siggwan   v. III ablautto sing
silubr   n. n.Asilver
sineigs   adjold
sinteins   adjdaily
siponeis   n. m.JApupil
sitan   v. V ablaut  intrto sit
sitls   n. m.Aseat
siukan   v. II ablaut  intrto be sick
siuks   adjsick
skalks   n. m.Aservant
skeinan   v. I ablaut  intrto shine
skip   n. n.Aship
skulds   adj  +datowing
slepan   v. VII redup  intrto sleep
smals   adjsmall
snáiws   n. m.Asnow
snutrs   adjwise
so   pronthe (f.)
stáins   n. m.Astone
standan   v. VI ablaut  intrto stand
staua   n. f.Ojudgement
stibna   n. f.Ovoice
sums   pron(indefinite) someone
sunja   n. f.Otruth
sunjis   adjtrue
swarts   adjblack
sweiban   v. I ablaut  intrto cease
swers   adj  +dathonored
swikunþs   adj  +datmanifest
swinþs   adjstrong
tagl   n. n.Ahair
tagr   n. n.Atear
taíhun   num. aj.iten
taíhuntaíhund   num  +genhundred
taíhuntehund   num  +genhundred
taui   n. n.JAdeed
táujan   v. I weak  +accto do
tekan   v. VII red.abl.  +datto touch
þande   conjif
þata   pronthat
þaúrban   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +gento need
þeihan   v. I ablaut  intrto thrive
þiubi   n. n.JAtheft
þiuda   n. f.Opeople
þiudangardi   n. f.JOkingdom
þiudans   n. m.Aking
þius   n. m.Aservant
þiwi   n. f.JOmaidservant
þliuhan   v. II ablautto flee
þreis   num. 3three
þreis tigjus   num  +genthirty
þū   pronthou
þūsundi   num. sf  +genthousand
tigjus   num  +gen-ty (suffix for decades 20-60)
tils   adjfit
tiuhan   v. II ablautto lead
triu   n. n.Atree
twaddje   numof two
twái   num. 2two
twái tigjus   num  +gentwenty
twalif   num. aj.itwelve
ubils   adjevil
ubiltojis   adjevil-doing
ufarmeli   n. n.JAsuperscription
ufháusjan   v. I weak  +datto submit
unkunþs   adj  +datunknown
unsibjis   adjlawless
unte   conjuntil
unweis   adj. aj.sunlearned
uskiusan   v. II ablaut(+acc) to choose out
wadi   n. n.JApledge
waírpan   v. III ablaut  +acc/datto throw
waírþan   v. III ablaut  intrto become
waírþs   adj  +genworthy
wakan   v. VI ablaut  intrto wake
waldufni   n. n.JApower
wamba   n. f.Obelly
wans   adj  +genlacking
wasti   n. f.JOclothing
waúrd   n. n.Aword
waúrms   n. m.Aserpent
waúrstw   n. n.Awork
weihan   v. I ablautto fight
weihs   adjholy
wein   n. n.Awine
wenjan   v. I weakto hope
wigs   n. m.Away
wilþeis   adjwild
winds   n. m.Awind
wisan   v. V ablaut  intrto be
wiþrawaírþo   adv  +datcontrariwise
wiþrawaírþs   adj  +datopposite
wulfs   n. m.Awolf
wundufni   n. f.JOwound
 

Unit 6

6.1) Numbers Beyond Ten

Gothic numbers beyond 10 are formed in various ways. Not all numbers are attested.

11 áinlif
12 twalif
13 þreistaíhun
14 fidwōrtaíhun
15 fimftaíhun
20 twái tigjus
30 þreis tigjus
40 fidwōr tigjus
50 fimf tigjus
60 saíhs tigjus
70 sibuntēhund
80 ahtáutēhund
90 niuntēhund
100 taíhuntēhund, taíhuntaíhund
200 twa hunda
300 þrija hunda
500 fimf hunda
900 niun hunda
1000 þūsundi
2000 twōs þūsundjōs
3000 þreis þūsundjōs
4000 fidwōr þūsundjōs
5000 fimf þūsundjōs

6.2) JŌ-Stem Nouns and Declension of þūsundi

From the above table, it is clear that þūsundi is a noun with a j in the stem. In fact, it is a long-stem -jō feminine noun, which declines like the pure ō-stems such as giba, but with the nominative singular ending -i. Other feminine nouns of this declesion include bandi (band): bandi, bandja, bandjōs, bandjái, pl. bandjōs, etc; and nouns declined like bandi such as:

fráistubni temptation
frijōndi friend (f.)
háiti command
háiþi field
mawi maiden (stem máuj-)
þiudangardi kingdom
þiwi maid-servant (stem þiuj-)
wasti clothing
wundufni wound

With this in mind, the datives of two more numbers are attested:

miþ taíhun þūsundjōm with 10,000
miþ twáim tigjum þūsundjōm with 20,000

6.3) Declension of Twái and þreis

The number twái (fem. twōs, neut. twa) has its own declension, probably partially left over from an earlier dual number of adjectives:

Masc
Nom twái bagmōs two trees (subj)
Acc twans bagmans two trees (obj)
Gen twaddjē bagmē of two trees
Dat twáim bagmam to/for two trees
Fem
Nom/Acc twōs aƕōs two rivers
Gen twaddjō aƕō of two rivers
Dat twáim aƕōm to/for two rivers
Neut
Nom/Acc twa waúrda two words
Gen twaddjē waúrdē of two words
Dat twáim waúrdam to/for two words

Whereas þreis is declined like so:

Masc
Nom þreis bagmōs three trees (subj)
Acc þrins bagmans three trees (obj)
Gen þrijē bagmē of three trees
Dat þrim bagmam to/for three trees
Fem
Nom þreis aƕōs three rivers (subj)
Acc þrins aƕōs three rivers (obj)
Gen þrijō aƕō of three rivers
Dat þrim aƕōm to/for three rivers
Neut
Nom/Acc þrija waúrda three words
Gen þrijē waúrdjē of three words
Dat þrim waúrdjam to/for three words

6.4) Preterite Tense

Gothic verbs form their past tenses in different ways. Just as in English we have "strong" verbs like give, gave, given and "weak" verbs like live, lived, lived, Gothic does too.

The past tenses in Gothic (including the perfect) are expressed by the preterite. For example, while the present tense "I see" is expressed as saíƕa (from the verb saíƕan, to see), the preterite is saƕ. This can mean I saw, I have seen, or I had seen. The full set of preterite endings, with pronouns for clarity, is:

Singular
1st ik saƕ I saw
2nd þū saƕt You (thou) saw
3rd is saƕ He saw
Dual
1st wit sēƕu We two saw
2nd jut sēƕuts You two saw
Plural
1st weis sēƕum We saw
2nd jus sēƕuþ You (pl.) saw
3rd eis sēƕun They saw

Note the stem of the preterite singular differs from the stem of the preterite dual/plural. This happens here because saíƕan is a strong verb and strong verbs in Gothic have separate preterite singular and preterite non-singular stems.

6.5) Consonant Changes in the Preterite

Preterites of verbs whose stems end in b or d change b to f and d to þ, as in gaf (gave), from giban (to give); baþ (bade) from biudan (to bid).

The -t ending of the 2nd person singular causes certain consonants at the ends of stems to change. Stem p, b change to f, while stem t, d, or þ changes to s:

waírpan to throw (ik) warp (þū) warft threw
giban to give (ik) gaf (þū) gaft gave
itan to eat (ik) ēt (þū) ēst ate
biudan to bid (ik) baþ (þū) bast bade
qiþan to say (ik) qaþ (þū) qast said

6.6) Example Conjugations

To cite a verb's conjugation, we have to know the infinitive stem, the preterite singular stem, the preterite plural stem, and the past participle stem. It is helpful to memorize each verb in all four principal parts. Here are conjugations for a few useful verbs:

baíran (to carry), bar, bērun, baúrans
brinnan (to burn), brann, brunnun, brunnans
drigkan (to drink), dragk, drugkun, drugkans
faran (to go), fōr, fōrun, farans
fraþjan (to understand), frōþ, frōþun, fraþans (the j occurs only in the present tense; otherwise this verb resembles faran)
giban (to give), gaf, gēbun, gibans
itan (to eat), ēt, ētun, itans
liudan (to grow), láuþ, ludun, ludans
niman (to take), nam, nēmun, numans
niutan (to enjoy), náut, nutun, nutans
qiman (to come), qam, qēmun, qumans
qiþan (to say), qaþ, qēþun, qiþans
saíƕan (to see), saƕ, sēƕun, saíƕans
siukan (to be sick), sáuk, sukun, sukans
skeinan (to shine), skáin, skinun, skinans
standan (to stand), stōþ, stōþun, standans (the n occurs only in the present tense; otherwise this verb resembles faran)
þliuhan (to flee), þláuh, þlaúhun, þlaúhans
waírþan (to become), warþ, waúrþun, waúrþans
wakan (to wake), wōk, wōkun, wakans

Only six different conjugations (called classes) are represented in the above table. Altogether there are seven classes of strong verbs, numbered Class I thru Class VII. Some of the classes contain verbs that seem to differ from each other in cerain tenses. For example, skeinan is a Class I verb, and so is leiƕan (to lend). But the preterite plural of leiƕan is not **liƕum but laíƕum. Any time we would expect a short i before h, ƕ, or r, it changes to , and likewise short u changes to . Therefore the preterite plural of tiuhan (to lead), a Class II verb like liudan, is taúhum. Here are the full 4 parts for comparison:

Class I
skeinan skáin skinun skinans
leiƕan láiƕ laíƕun laíƕans
Class II
liudan láuþ ludun ludans
tiuhan táuh taúhun taúhans
Class III
brinnan brann brunnun brunnans
waírþan warþ waúrþun waúrþans
Class V
giban gaf gēbun gibans
saíƕan saƕ sēƕun saíƕans

6.7) Examples of Material from This Unit

1. Stōþ nēƕa twáim aƕōm. I stood by two rivers.
2. Þái wulfōs ētun þans þrins fuglans. The wolves ate the three birds.
3. Qaþ sa hrabns, "juþan ni." Quoth the raven, "nevermore."
4. Nutu þizē akranē fram þamma asta. We two enjoyed the fruits from the branch.
5. Qamt du þizái háiþjái fram þaim þrim raznam. You (thou) came to the field from the three houses.
Translate from Gothic:
6. Qast þatei wōkun in maúrgina.
7. Weis ētum jah drugkum miþ þamma þiudana.
8. Is sáuk aþþan nu ist háils. (nu = now)
9. Ik saƕ þatei warþ swinþa.
10. Stáina warft du þaí fuglam in þizái háiþjái.

Answers

Translate into Gothic:
11. You never sow in the field.
12. I didn't see another mountain.
13. She didn't say two words to the teacher.
14. I went to the cold region and now I'm sick.
15. The kingdom is hidden beside two mountains. (Use nēƕa for beside.)

Answers



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