Vocabulary

af   prep. +datof
afar   prep. +accafter
afta   advbehind
aftra   advback
aftuma   adj. w.ajthe following
aggwus   adjnarrow
agis   n. n.Afright
aglo   n. f.Nanguish
agluba   advhardly
aglus   adj  +dathard
aha   n. m.Nmind
ahma   n. m.Nspirit
ahtáu   num. aj.ieight
ahtáutehund   numeighty
aƕa   n. f.Oriver
áigan   v. pret-pres. VI abl.  +accto have
áigum   v. pret.pres.  +accwe have
áih   v. pret.pres.  +accI have
áihan   v. pret-pres. VI abl.  +acc= áigan
áihtron   v. II weakto beg for
áihts   n. f.Iproperty
aíƕs   n. m.Ahorse
áinlif   num. aj.ieleven
áins   num. 1one
áinshun   pron(+ ni) no one
áir   advsoon
áirinon   v. II weak  intrto be a messenger
aírþa   n. f.Oearth
aírþeins   adjearthly
áirus   n. m.Umessenger
aírzeis   adjastray
áistān   v. III weakto revere
áiþei   n. f.Nmother
áiþs   n. m.Aoath
aíþþáu   conjor
áiweins   adjeternal
áiws   n. m.Atime
ak   conjbut
akran   n. n.Afruit
akrs   n. m.Afield
alan   v. VI ablaut  intrto grow
alhs   n. f.Ctemple
alja   prep. +datexcept
aljar   advelsewhere
aljaþ   advelsewhere
aljis   adjother
alls   adj. s.ajall
alþeis   adjold
ana   prep. +acconto
ana   prep. +daton
anabusns   n. f.Icommand
anaháitan   v. VII redup(+acc) to call on
analáugns   adj. aj.ihidden
anasilān   v. III weak  intrto be silent
anasiuns   adj. aj.ivisible
anaþrafstjan   v. I weak  +accto comfort
and   prep. +accalong
andahafts   n. f.Ianswer
andanems   adj. aj.ipleasant
andastaþjis   n. m.JAadversary
andbahti   n. n.JAservice
andeis   n. m.JAend
andhafjan   v. VI ablaut  +datto answer
andizuh   conjeither (used with aíththáu)
ansteigs   adj  +datgracious
ansts   n. f.Ifavor
anþar   adj. s.ajother
arbáiþs   n. f.Iwork
arbi   n. n.JAheritage
arbinumja   n. m.Nheir
arbja   n. m.Nheir
arbjo   n. f.Nheiress
arjan   v. I weakto plough/plow
armān   v. III weakto pity
arms   n. m.Iarm
arms   adjpoor
asans   n. f.Iharvest
asilus   n. m.Uass
asilus   n. f.Ushe-ass
asneis   n. m.JAservant
asts   n. m.Abranch
at   prep. +accat
aþþan   conjbut
atlaþon   v. II weakto call
atta   n. m.Nfather
attekan   v. VII red.abl.  +datto touch
áudags   adjblessed
áugjan   v. I weakto show
áuk   conjbut also
áukan   v. VII redupto add
aúrkeis   n. m.JAjug
áuþida   n. f.Owilderness
áuþs   adj. aj.idesert
awiliudon   v. II weak  +datto thank
azgo   n. f.Ncinder
badi   n. n.JAbed
bagms   n. m.Atree
baíran   v. IV ablaut  +accto bear
baírgan   v. IV ablaut  +datto hide
baírhtei   n. f.Nbrightness
baírhts   adjbright
báitraba   advbitterly
báitrei   n. f.Nbitterness
báitrs   adjbitter
balgs   n. m.Ibag
balþei   n. f.Nboldness
balwjan   v. I weak  +datto torment
bandja   n. m.Nprisoner
bandwa   n. f.Osign
barms   n. m.Ibosom
barn   n. n.Achild
barnisks   adjchildish
bauan   v. III weak pret.to dwell
baúr   n. m.Ison
baúrgja   n. m.Ncitizen
baúrgs   n. f.Ccity
beidan   v. I ablautto await
bi   prep. +datby
bida   n. f.Orequest
bidjan   v. V ablautto ask
bileiban   v. I ablaut  intrto remain
binah   v. pret.pres.  intrit is permitted
bisitands   n. m.NDneighbor
biudan   v. II ablautto offer
bleiþei   n. f.Nmercy
blinds   adjblind
bloma   n. m.Nflower
bloþ   n. n.Ablood
bnauān   v. III weakto rub
boka   n. f.O(sing) letter of the alphabet; (pl) book
bokareis   n. m.JAscribe
bota   n. f.Oadvantage
briggan   v. I weak  +accto bring
brikan   v. IV ablautto break
brinnan   v. III ablaut  intrto burn
brinno   n. f.Nfever
broþar   n. m.Rbrother
brūkjan   v. I weak  +gento use
brūks   adj. aj.i  +datuseful
brunjo   n. f.Nbreastplate
brunna   n. m.Nwell
brusts   n. f.Cbreast
brūþfaþs   n. m.Ibridegroom
bugjan   v. I weakto buy
dags   n. m.Aday
dáiljan   v. I weakto deal out
dáils   n. f.Iportion
dalaþ   advdown
dalaþa   advbelow
dáug   v. pret.pres.it is good for
daúhtar   n. f.Rdaughter
dáupeins   n. f.Ibaptism
daúr   n. n.Adoor
dáuþjan   v. I weakto put to death
dáuþus   n. m.Udeath
deþs   n. f.Ideed
diups   adjdeep
dius   n. n.Awild beast
diwan   v. V ablaut  intrto die
domjan   v. I weak  +accto judge (+ optional double accusative)
dráibjan   v. I weakto drive
dreiban   v. I ablautto drive
drigkan   v. III ablautto drink
driuso   n. f.Nslope
drus   n. m.Ifall
du   prep. +datto
duginnan   v. III ablautto begin
dulþs   n. f.Cfeast (recurring)
dwalimon   v. II weak  intrto be foolish
dwals   adjfoolish
ei   conjthat
eisarn   n. n.Airon
fadar   n. m.Rfather
fadreins   n. f.Ifamily
faginon   v. II weak  intrto rejoice
fagrs   adjbeautiful
fāhan   v. VII redupto seize
faheþs   n. f.Ijoy
faíhu   n. n.Ucattle
faírguni   n. n.JAmountain
faírƕus   n. m.Uworld
faírneis   adjold
faírraþro   advfrom afar
falþan   v. VII redupto fold
fara   n. f.Otraffic
faran   v. VI ablaut  intrto fare
fastān   v. III weak  intrto fast
fastubni   n. n.JAfasting
faúr   prep. +accfor
faúra   prep. +datbefore
faúra   advbefore
faúragagga   n. m.Nsteward
faúramaþleis   n. m.JAruler
faúrhtjan   v. I weakto fear
fáus   adj. aj.ausmall
fera   n. f.Oregion
fidwor   num. aj.ifour
fidwor tigjus   num  +genforty
fidwortaíhun   num. aj.ifourteen
fijān   v. III weakto hate
fijands   n. m.NDenemy
fijaþwa   n. f.Ohatred
filhan   v. III ablautto hide
filu   adj. snu!j  +gengreat
fimf   num. aj.ifive
fimf tigjus   num  +genfifty
fimftaíhun   num. aj.ififteen
finþan   v. III ablaut  +accto find
fiskja   n. m.Nfisher
fiskon   v. II weakto fish
fisks   n. m.Afish
fodjan   v. I weakto feed
fon   n. mnfire
fotus   n. m.Ufoot
frabugjan   v. I weak  +datto sell
fraíhnan   v. V ablaut  +gento ask
fráisan   v. VII redupto tempt
fráistubni   n. f.JOtemptation
fráiw   n. n.Aseed
frakunnan   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +datto despise
fraliusan   v. II ablaut  +datto lose
fralusts   n. f.Iloss
fram   prep. +datfrom
fraqiman   v. IV ablaut  +datto expend
fraþi   n. n.JAunderstanding
fraþjan   v. VI ablaut  +datto understand
fráuja   n. m.Nmaster
fráujinon   v. II weak  intrto be lord or king
freis   adj  +genfree
frijaþwa   n. f.Olove
frijon   v. II weakto love
frijondi   n. f.JOfriend
frijonds   n. m.NDfriend
frodei   n. f.Nunderstanding
froþs   adjwise
fruma   adj. w.ajthe former
fugls   n. m.Abird
fulgins   adjhidden
fullatojis   adjperfect
fulljan   v. I weak  +gento fill
fullnan   v. IV weak  +gento become full
fullo   n. f.Nfullness
fulls   adj. s.aj  +genfull
gabaúrþs   n. f.Ibirth
gabindan   v. III ablautto bind
gadaúrsan   v. pret-pres. III abl.to dare
gafáurs   adj. aj.iwell-behaved
gageigān   v. III weakto gain
gaggan   v. VII redup  intrto go
gahráinjan   v. I weak  +gento cleanse
gahugds   n. f.Ithought
gáidw   n. n.Awant
gaírnjan   v. I weak  +gento be fain or willing
gajuka   n. m.Ncompanion
gajuko   n. f.Nparable
gakunnan   v. pret-pres. III abl.to recognize
gakusts   n. f.Itest
galáubeins   n. f.Ifaith
galáubjan   v. I weakto believe
galeikon   v. II weakto liken
galeiks   adj  +datlike
galga   n. m.Ncross
gamáins   adj. aj.icommon
gamotan   v. pret-pres. VI abl.to find room
gamotjan   v. I weak  +datto meet
gamunds   n. f.Irememberance
ganohs   adj. s.ajenough
gaqumþs   n. f.Iassembly
garaíhts   adjrighteous
garda   n. m.Nyard
garūni   n. n.JAconsultation
garuns   n. f.Imarketplace
gasinþja   n. m.Ncompanion
gaskafts   n. f.Icreation
gastaldan   v. VII redupto possess
gasts   n. m.Iguest
gataíran   v. IV ablaut  +acc/datto tear to pieces
gatamjan   v. I weakto tame
gataúra   n. m.Na tear
gataúrþs   n. f.Idestruction
gaþarbān   v. III weak  +gento suffer want
gaþláihan   v. VII redupto cherish
gatimrjo   n. f.Nbuilding
gatwo   n. f.Nstreet
gáumjan   v. I weak  +datto perceive
gáunon   v. II weakto lament
gáurs   adjsad
gawaírþi   n. n.JApeace
gawaúrkjan   v. I weakto make
gawaúrstwa   n. m.Nfellow worker
gaweison   v. II weak  +gento visit
gawi   n. n.JAregion
gawiljis   adjwilling
giba   n. f.Ogift
giban   v. V ablautto give
gistradagis   advtomorrow
goljan   v. I weakto greet
goþs   adj  +datgood
graba   n. f.Oditch
gras   n. n.Agrass
gredags   adjhungry
gretan   v. VII red.abl.  intrto weep
groba   n. f.Oden
gudja   n. m.Npreist
gulþ   n. n.Agold
gulþeins   adjgolden
guma   n. m.Nman
Gutrazda   n. f.OGothic language
habān   v. III weakto have
hāhan   v. VII redupto hang
háifstjan   v. I weak  +accto strive
háifsts   n. f.Ifight
háiljan   v. I weak  +gento heal
háils   adjwhole
háims   n. f.Ivillage
haírdeis   n. m.JAshepherd
haírto   n. n.Nheart
haírus   n. m.Usword
háitan   v. VII redup  +accto call
háiþi   n. f.JOfield
háiti   n. f.JOorder
halbs   adj. s.ajhalf
haldan   v. VII redupto hold
halja   n. f.Ohell
hana   n. m.Nrooster
handugs   adjclever
handus   n. f.Uhand
hardus   adjhard
harjis   n. m.JAarmy
hatān   v. III weakto hate
hatizon   v. II weakto be angry
háubiþ   n. n.Ahead
haúrds   n. f.Idoor
haúrn   n. n.Ahorn
haúrnja   n. m.Nhorn-blower
háusjan   v. I weakto hear
hawi   n. n.JAhay
hazjan   v. I weakto praise
her   advhere
heþjo   n. f.Nchamber
hidre   advhither
hilpan   v. III ablaut  +gento help
himins   n. m.Aheaven
hindana   prep. +genbehind
hindar   prep. +accbehind
his   pronthis (acc. hina
hiuhma   n. m.Ncrowd
hláifs   n. m.Aloaf
hláiw   n. n.Agrave
hliftus   n. m.Uthief
hliuma   n. m.Nhearing
hlūtrs   adjpure
hnasqus   adjsoft
holon   v. II weakto treat with violence
hráins   adj. aj.iclean
huggrjan   v. I weakto hunger (impers. +acc of person)
hūhrus   n. m.Uhunger
hulþs   adj  +datgracious
hunds   n. m.Adog
hups   n. m.Ihip
huzd   n. n.Atreasure
-ƕa   conjwhether (clitic)
ƕadre   advwhither
ƕáiteis   n. m.JAwheat
ƕáiwa   conjhow
ƕan   adv(interr) when?
ƕar   advwhere
ƕarbon   v. II weakto go about
ƕarjis   pronwho
ƕarjizuh   pron(indefinite) each
ƕas   pronwho
ƕashun   pron(indefinite
ƕaþar   pronwhich of two
ƕaþaruh   proneach of two
ƕaþro   advwhence
ƕazuh   pron(indef) each
ƕe   adv(interr) with what
ƕeila   n. f.Otime
ƕeláuþs   pron(interr) how great
ƕileiks   pronwhat sort of
ƕopan   v. VII redup  intrto boast
ibái   conjlest
ibnassus   n. m.Uevenness
ibns   adjeven
iddja   v  intr(preterite of gaggan) I went
idreigon   v. II weak  intrto repent
igqar   pron(poss) of you two
ik   pronI
ikei   pronI who... (relative)
im   v  intrI am
in   prep. +accin
in   prep. +genon account of
in   prep. +datin
inna   advwithin
innana   advwithin
innaþro   advfrom within
inuh   prep. +accwithout
is   pronhe
is   v  intrthou art
ist   vis
ita   pronit
itan   v. V ablautto eat
  conjbut
iup   advupwards
iupa   advabove
izei   pron(rel) who
izwar   pron(poss) your
ja   advyea
jabái   conjif
jah   conjand
jái   interj= ja
jáidre   adv= jáind
jáinar   advyonder
jáind   advthither
jáins   pron. s.ajthat
jaþþe   conjand if
jer   n. n.Ayear
ju   advalready
juggs   adjyoung
juk   n. n.Ayoke
jus   pronye
jut   pronye two
jutei   pronye two who (relative)
juþan   advalready
juzei   pronye who (relative)
kalbo   n. f.Ncalf
kalds   adjcold
kara   n. f.Ocare
karkara   n. f.Oprison
karon   v. II weakto care for
káupatjan   v. I weakto buffet
káupon   v. II weakto traffic
kaúrn   n. n.Agrain
kaúrus   adjheavy
kilþei   n. f.Nwomb
kinnus   n. f.Ucheek
kiusan   v. II ablautto choose
kniu   n. n.Aknee
kukjan   v. I weak  +datto kiss
kunnan   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +accto know (+ optional double accusative)
kunþi   n. n.JAknowledge
kunþs   adj  +datknown
kustus   n. m.Uproof
laggs   adjlong
lagjan   v. I weakto lay
láiba   n. f.Oremnant
láis   vI know
láisareis   n. m.JAteacher
láiseins   n. f.Idoctrine
láisjan   v. I weakto teach (+acc of person taught and +acc of thing taught)
láists   n. m.Ifootprint
lamb   n. n.Alamb
lasiws   adjweak
laþon   v. II weakto invite
lats   adjslothful
láufs   n. m.Aleaf
láun   n. n.Apay
láus   adj. aj.s  +genempty
leiƕan   v. I ablautto lend
leik   n. n.Abody
leikān   v. III weak  +datto please
leiþu   n. n.Ustrong drink
leitils   adjlittle
lekeis   n. m.JAphysician
letan   v. VII red.abl.to let
lew   n. n.Aoccasion
libān   v. III weak  intrto live
ligan   v. V ablaut  intrto lie
ligrs   n. m.Abed
lists   n. f.Icraftiness
liþus   n. m.Ulimb
liudan   v. II ablaut  intrto grow
liufs   adj  +datdear
liugān   v. III weakto marry
liuta   n. m.Nhypocrite
ludja   n. f.Oface
luftus   n. m.Uair
lukarnastaþa   n. m.Ncandlestick
luston   v. II weak  +gento desire
lustus   n. m.Udesire
magaþs   n. f.Imaid
magula   n. m.Nlittle boy
magus   n. m.Uboy
mahteigs   adjmighty
mahts   adjpossible
máitan   v. VII redupto cut
máiþms   n. m.Agift
malma   n. m.Nsand
managei   n. f.Nmultitude
manags   adjmuch
manaseþs   n. f.Imankind
mannahun   pron(with ni) no one
manwus   adjready
marei   n. f.Nsea
matjan   v. I weakto eat
mats   n. m.Imeat
maúrgins   n. m.Amorning
maúrnān   v. III weakto mourn
maúrþr   n. n.Amurder
mawi   n. f.JOmaiden
mawilo   n. f.Nyoung maiden
meins   pronmy
meljan   v. I weakto write
mena   n. m.Nmoon
menoþs   n. m.Cmonth
merjands   n. m.NDproclaimer
midjis   adj. s.ajmiddle
mikilaba   advgreatly
mikildūþs   n. f.Igreatness
mikils   adjgreat
miluks   n. f.Cmilk
misso   adv(always with pers. pron.) reciprocally
mitaþs   n. f.Cmeasure
miþ   prep. +datwith
miþ   advwith
miton   v. II weakto consider
mizdo   n. f.Nreward
modags   adj  +datangry
mota   n. f.Ocustom
motareis   n. m.JAtoll-taker
mulda   n. f.Odust
munān   v. III weakto consider
muns   n. m.Ithought
nahts   n. f.Cnight
namnjan   v. I weak  +accto name
naseins   n. f.Isalvation
nasjan   v. I weakto save
nati   n. n.JAnet
natjan   v. I weakto make wet
náus   n. m.Icorpse
náuþs   n. f.Ineed
ne   advnay
neƕa   prep. +datnigh to
neƕundja   n. m.Nneighbor
neþla   n. f.Oneedle
ni   advnot
nibái   conjunless
nidwa   n. f.Orust
nih   conjand not
niman   v. IV ablautto take
nist   v= ni ist
niþjis   n. m.JAkinsman
niþjo   n. f.Ncousin
niujis   adjnew
niun   num. aj.inine
niuntehund   numninety
niutan   v. II ablaut  +gento enjoy
nota   n. m.Nstern of a ship
nu   advnow
nuta   n. m.Nfisher
ogan   v. pret-pres. VI abl.to fear
qaírrus   adjgentle
qens   n. f.Iwife
qiman   v. IV ablaut  intrto come
qino   n. f.Nwoman
qiss   n. f.Isaying
qiþan   v. V ablaut  +accto say
qius   adjalive
qums   n. m.Iadvent
ragineis   n. m.JAcounsellor
raíhts   adjright
ráisjan   v. I weakto raise
rasta   n. f.Omile
raþjo   n. f.Nnumber
razda   n. f.Olanguage
razn   n. n.Ahouse
reiki   n. n.JArule
reikinon   v. II weakto rule
reiks   n. m.Cruler
reirān   v. III weak  intrto tremble
riqis   n. n.Adarkness
riqizeins   adjdark
rodjan   v. I weak  intrto speak
rūna   n. f.Osecret
sa   pronthis
saei   pron(relative) who
saggws   n. m.Isong
sah   pronthat
saian   v. VII red.abl.to sow
saíhs   num. aj.isix
saíhs tigjus   num  +gensixty
saíƕan   v. V ablaut  +accto see
sáiwala   n. f.Osoul
sáiws   n. m.Isea
sakjo   n. f.Nstrife
sakkus   n. m.Usackcloth
salbon   v. II weakto anoint
salt   n. n.Asalt
sama   pronsame
samaþ   advto the same place
saþs   adjfull
satjan   v. I weakto set
saúhts   n. f.Isickness
saúrga   n. f.Osorrow
saúrgān   v. III weak  intrto sorrow
sáuþs   n. m.Isacrifice
seins   pronhis
seiþus   adjlate
sels   adj. aj.igood
si   pronshe
sibun   num. aj.iseven
sibuntehund   numseventy
sidon   v. II weakto practice
sidus   n. m.Ucustom
sifān   v. III weak  intrto rejoice
siggwan   v. III ablautto sing
sihu   n. n.Uvictory (irregular spelling probably a typo for a sm. *sigus
sik   prononeself
silba   pronself
sildaleiks   adjwonderful
silubr   n. n.Asilver
simle   advonce
sineigs   adjold
sinteino   advalways
sinteins   adjdaily
siponeis   n. m.JApupil
sitan   v. V ablaut  intrto sit
sitls   n. m.Aseat
siujan   v. I weakto sew
siukan   v. II ablaut  intrto be sick
siuks   adjsick
siuns   n. f.Isight
skadus   n. m.Ushade
skáidan   v. VII redupto divide
skal   v  intrI shall
skalks   n. m.Aservant
skamān   v. III weak  +gen(+ sik) to be ashamed
skapjan   v. VI ablautto shape
skáuns   adj. aj.ibeautiful
skeinan   v. I ablaut  intrto shine
skeirs   adj. aj.iclear
skildus   n. m.Ushield
skip   n. n.Aship
skuggwa   n. m.Nmirror
skula   n. m.Ndebtor
skulan   v. pret-pres. IV abl.  intrto owe
skulds   adj  +datowing
slaúhts   n. f.Islaughter
slawān   v. III weak  intrto be silent
slepan   v. VII redup  intrto sleep
smakka   n. m.Nfig
smals   adjsmall
snaga   n. m.Ngarment
snáiws   n. m.Asnow
snutrs   adjwise
so   pronthe (f.)
soh   pronthat
sokjan   v. I weak  +accto seek
sokns   n. f.Isearch
sparwa   n. m.Nsparrow
spaúrds   n. f.Cstadium
spillon   v. II weakto narrate
spráuto   advquickly
stáins   n. m.Astone
staírno   n. f.Nstar
standan   v. VI ablaut  intrto stand
staþs   n. m.Iplace
staua   n. f.Ojudgement
staua   n. m.Njudge
stibna   n. f.Ovoice
stojan   v. I weakto judge
stráujan   v. I weakto strew
striks   n. m.Istroke
sums   pron(indefinite) someone
sunja   n. f.Otruth
sunjaba   advtruly
sunjis   adjtrue
sunjon   v. II weakto justify
sunsei   conjas soon as
sunus   n. m.Uson
sutis   adj. aj.zsweet
swaei   conjso that
swaíhra   n. m.Nfather in law
swaíhro   n. f.Nmother in law
swaláuþs   pronso great
swaleiks   pronsuch
swarts   adjblack
swaswe   conjjust like
swe   conjlike
sweiban   v. I ablaut  intrto cease
swerān   v. III weakto honor
swers   adj  +dathonored
swiglja   n. m.Npiper
swiglon   v. II weakto pipe
swikunþs   adj  +datmanifest
swinþs   adjstrong
swistar   n. f.Rsister
swogatjan   v. I weakto sigh
tagl   n. n.Ahair
tagr   n. n.Atear
taíhun   num. aj.iten
taíhuntaíhund   num  +genhundred
taíhuntehund   num  +genhundred
táikns   n. f.Itoken
talzjands   n. m.NDteacher
taui   n. n.JAdeed
táujan   v. I weak  +accto do
tekan   v. VII red.abl.  +datto touch
þadei   advwhither
þagkjan   v. I weakto think
þahān   v. III weak  intrto be silent
þāho   n. f.Nclay
þaírh   prep. +accthrough
þan   conjbut
þande   conjif
þannu   conjtherefore
þar   advthere
þarei   adv(relative) where
þata   pronthat
þatei   conjthat
þatuh   pronthat
þaúrban   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +gento need
þaúrfts   n. f.Ineed
þaúrnus   n. m.Uthorn
þaúrsus   adjdry
þeihan   v. I ablaut  intrto thrive
þeiƕo   n. f.Nthunder
þeins   pronthy
þiubi   n. n.JAtheft
þiuda   n. f.Opeople
þiudangardi   n. f.JOkingdom
þiudans   n. m.Aking
þiudinassus   n. m.Ukingdom
þius   n. m.Aservant
þiwi   n. f.JOmaidservant
þlaqus   adjsoft
þlaúhs   n. m.Iflight
þliuhan   v. II ablautto flee
þragjan   v. I weak  intrto run
þramstei   n. f.Nlocust
þreis   num. 3three
þreis tigjus   num  +genthirty
þridjo   advfor the third time
þū   pronthou
þugkjan   v. I weak  intrto seem
þūsundi   num. sf  +genthousand
þwahan   v. VI ablautto wash
tigjus   num  +gen-ty (suffix for decades 20-60)
tils   adjfit
timrja   n. m.Ncarpenter
timrjan   v. I weakto build
tiuhan   v. II ablautto lead
trauān   v. III weakto trust
triu   n. n.Atree
tuggo   n. f.Ntongue
tulgus   adjfirm
tunþus   n. m.Utooth
twaddje   numof two
twái   num. 2two
twái tigjus   num  +gentwenty
twalibwintrus   adjtwelve years old
twalif   num. aj.itwelve
-u   part(interrogative particle
ubils   adjevil
ubiltojis   adjevil-doing
uf   prep. +datunder
ufar   prep. +datover
ufarmeli   n. n.JAsuperscription
ufarmunnon   v. II weak  +datto forget
ufaro   advabove
ufháusjan   v. I weak  +datto submit
ugkar   pronof us two
-uh   conj(enclitic) but
ūhtwo   n. f.Nearly morn
unagands   adjfearless
und   prep. +accunto
und   prep. +datfor
undar   prep. +accunder
undaro   prep. +datunder
unkunþs   adj  +datunknown
unsar   pronour
unsibjis   adjlawless
unte   conjuntil
unweis   adj. aj.sunlearned
us   prep. +datout
uskiusan   v. II ablaut(+acc) to choose out
ūta   advoutside
ūtana   prep. +gen= ûtathro
ūtaþro   prep. +genfrom without
waddjus   n. f.Uwall
wadi   n. n.JApledge
wahtwa   n. f.Owatch
waian   v. VII red.abl.to blow
waíhts   n. f.Ithing
wáinei   v. pret.pres.I wish
waír   n. m.Aman
waírpan   v. III ablaut  +acc/datto throw
waírþan   v. III ablaut  intrto become
waírþs   adj  +genworthy
wakan   v. VI ablaut  intrto wake
waldufni   n. n.JApower
waljan   v. I weakto choose
wamba   n. f.Obelly
wandjan   v. I weakto turn
wans   adj  +genlacking
wardja   n. m.Nguard
warjan   v. I weakto forbid
wasjan   v. I weakto clothe
wasti   n. f.JOclothing
waúrd   n. n.Aword
waúrkjan   v. I weak  +accto work
waúrms   n. m.Aserpent
waúrstw   n. n.Awork
waúrts   n. f.Iroot
weiha   n. m.Npriest
weihan   v. I ablautto fight
weihs   adjholy
wein   n. n.Awine
weis   pronwe
weitwoþs   n. m.Cwitness
weizei   pronwe who (relative)
wenjan   v. I weakto hope
wens   n. f.Ihope
wigs   n. m.Away
wilja   n. m.Nwill
wiljan   v. irreg.  intrbe willing
wilþeis   adjwild
winds   n. m.Awind
-wintrus   adjyears old
wintrus   n. m.Uwinter
wisan   v. V ablaut  intrto be
wit   pronwe two
witan   v. pret-pres. I abl.to know
witān   v. III weak  +datto watch
witei   pronwe two who (relative)
wiþra   prep. +accagainst
wiþrawaírþo   adv  +datcontrariwise
wiþrawaírþs   adj  +datopposite
wiþrus   n. m.Ulamb
wrohs   n. f.Iaccusation
wulfs   n. m.Awolf
wulþus   n. m.Uglory
wundufni   n. f.JOwound
 

Unit 13

13.1) Minor Declension Nouns

Minor declensions occur of nouns whose stems end in a consonant and which do not fit neatly into any of the usual declensions.

For example, brōþar (brother) is declined as:

 SingularPlural
Nom.brōþarbrōþrjus
Acc.brōþarbrōþruns
Gen.brōþrsbrōþrē
Dat.brōþrbrōþrum

The same declension applies to daúhtar (daughter) and swistar (sister); fadar (father) is attested once, but seems to have fallen out of frequent usage in favor of atta; the regular Indo-European kinship term for mother was understandably dropped by the Goths in favor of the more standard declensioned áiþei.

Certain nouns such as frijōnds (friend), which were originally participles, are declined like so:

 SingularPlural
Nom.frijōndsfrijōnds
Acc.frijōndfrijōnds
Gen.frijōndisfrijōndē
Dat.frijōndfrijōndam

The same declension applies to bisitands (neighbor), fijands (enemy), mērjands (proclaimer), talzjands (teacher), and a few others.

The masculine noun mēnōþs (month) has (with article for intelligibility) þis mēnōþs, þamma mēnōþ; plurals þáíþans mēnōþs, þáim mēnōþum. Similarly, sa reiks (ruler) has þis reikis, þamma reik; þái/þans reiks, þizē reikē, þáim reikam. Sa weitwōds (witness) has þana weitwōd; þái weitwōds, þizē weitwōdē.

The feminine baúrgs (city, burg) has singular sō/þizōs baúrgs, þō/þizái baúrg; pl. þōs baúrgs, þizō baúrgē, þáim baúrgim. Also declined this way are:

alhs temple
brusts breast
dulþs feast
miluks milk
mitaþs measure (gen. mitads)
nahts night (dat. pl. nahtam by analogy with dagam)
spaúrds recourse
waíhts thing

The neuter noun fōn (fire) has gen. funins, dat. funin. It is not known in the plural, in fact evidence suggests that even all the way back to Proto-Indo-European this word never had a plural.

13.2) Conjugation of Wiljan (To Will)

The verb wiljan (to will) is conjugated as follows in the present:

SingularPresentPreterite
1st ik wiljáuik wilda
2nd þū wileisþū wildēs
3rd is wiliis wilda
Dual
1st (wanting)wit wildu
2nd jut wileitsjut wilduts
Plural
1st weis wileimaweis wildum
2nd jus wileiþjus wilduþ
3rd eis wileinaeis wildun

Its meaning also extends into the senses of "want" and, with an infinitive of another verb, "want to" or "going to".

13.3) Preterite-Present Verbs

Preterite-present verbs have the morphology of a preterite, but the meaning of a present tense. Compare Greek οίδα, Latin nōvī to Gothic wáit (I know). The extant parts of witan (to know) are: ik wáit, þū wáist; weis witum; preterite wissa. Also there is a subjunctive witjáu (more on subjunctives in a later unit) and subjunctive preterite wissēdjáu, and participle witands.

We've already encountered þaúrban, but it is also a preterite present: ik þarf, þū þarft; weis þaúrbum; pret. þaúrfta, etc. The pass. pple. þaúrfts means "necessary".

Kunnan (to know) is extant as ik kann, þū kan(n)t; weis kunnum; preterite kunþa; pret. subj. kunþēdjáu; present pple. kunnands, passive pple. kunþs (known).

Munan (to think) has 1st sing man (I think), 1st pl. munum, pret. munda.

Extant forms of ga-daúrsan (to dare) include 1st sing. ga-dars, 1st plural ga-daúrsum, pret. ga-daúrsta.

The combining form -naúhan is attested only as bi-nah (it is lawful, permitted), ga-nah (it suffices), bi-naúhts (sufficient).

Ga-mōtan (to find room) belongs to this group: 1st sing. ga-mōt, etc. Its pret. is ga-mōsta.

Few forms are extant of *ōgan: ōg (I fear), pl. ōgum, pret. ōhta, imper. 2nd. sing ōgs. Related to adj. unagands (fearless).

áihan (to have): áih (I have, s/he has); plurals áihum, áihuþ, áihun with stem áih- in free alternation with áig-.

Dáug (it is good for, it profits) is the only extant form of its verb, as are láis (I know) and wáinei (I wish).

13.4) Auxiliary Verbs

Some preterite-presents are also auxilliary verbs, such as: skulan (to owe), ik skal (I shall, I owe), plural skulum (we shall); magan (to be able), ik mag (I can), plural magum (we can); etc. Future tenses of other verbs can be made not just using skulan as an auxilliary, but also using haban and du-ginnan (begin; dugann, dugunnum, dugunnans), which are not preterite-presents. Wiljan can act as an auxiliary verb meaning "to want to". A present participle with a preterite of wisan (to be) forms a past continuative, just as in English ("I was doing x").

13.5) Examples of Material from This Unit

1. Skulum gaggan naht jah daga.We shall go by night and day.
2. In skeirjamma daga, mag saíƕan and rastōs. On a clear day, I can see for miles.
3. Ist kunþs þatei maúrnáidēs im.It is known that you (thou) mourned for them.
4. Habáiþ gamōtjan uns gistradagis.S/he will meet with us tomorrow. (Note that haban forms a future tense in Gothic, unlike "have" in English, and gistradagis means "tomorrow" even though it is related to "yesterday".)


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