Vocabulary

af   prep. +datof
afar   prep. +accafter
agis   n. n.Afright
aglus   adj  +dathard
ahtáu   num. aj.ieight
aƕa   n. f.Oriver
aíƕs   n. m.Ahorse
áins   num. 1one
aírþa   n. f.Oearth
aírþeins   adjearthly
aírzeis   adjastray
áiþs   n. m.Aoath
áiweins   adjeternal
áiws   n. m.Atime
ak   conjbut
akran   n. n.Afruit
akrs   n. m.Afield
alan   v. VI ablaut  intrto grow
aljis   adjother
alls   adj. s.ajall
alþeis   adjold
ana   prep. +daton
anaháitan   v. VII redup(+acc) to call on
and   prep. +accalong
andastaþjis   n. m.JAadversary
andbahti   n. n.JAservice
andeis   n. m.JAend
andhafjan   v. VI ablaut  +datto answer
ansteigs   adj  +datgracious
arbi   n. n.JAheritage
arms   adjpoor
asneis   n. m.JAservant
asts   n. m.Abranch
aþþan   conjbut
attekan   v. VII red.abl.  +datto touch
áudags   adjblessed
aúrkeis   n. m.JAjug
áuþida   n. f.Owilderness
badi   n. n.JAbed
bagms   n. m.Atree
baírgan   v. IV ablaut  +datto hide
baírhts   adjbright
báitrs   adjbitter
balwjan   v. I weak  +datto torment
bandwa   n. f.Osign
barn   n. n.Achild
barnisks   adjchildish
bauan   v. III weak pret.to dwell
beidan   v. I ablautto await
bi   prep. +datby
bida   n. f.Orequest
bidjan   v. V ablautto ask
bileiban   v. I ablaut  intrto remain
blinds   adjblind
bloþ   n. n.Ablood
boka   n. f.O(sing) letter of the alphabet; (pl) book
bokareis   n. m.JAscribe
bota   n. f.Oadvantage
brūkjan   v. I weak  +gento use
brūks   adj. aj.i  +datuseful
dags   n. m.Aday
daúr   n. n.Adoor
diups   adjdeep
dius   n. n.Awild beast
diwan   v. V ablaut  intrto die
dreiban   v. I ablautto drive
drigkan   v. III ablautto drink
du   prep. +datto
dwals   adjfoolish
ei   conjthat
eisarn   n. n.Airon
fagrs   adjbeautiful
faírguni   n. n.JAmountain
faírneis   adjold
fara   n. f.Otraffic
faran   v. VI ablaut  intrto fare
fastubni   n. n.JAfasting
faúramaþleis   n. m.JAruler
fáus   adj. aj.ausmall
fera   n. f.Oregion
fidwor   num. aj.ifour
fijaþwa   n. f.Ohatred
filhan   v. III ablautto hide
filu   adj. snu!j  +gengreat
fimf   num. aj.ifive
finþan   v. III ablaut  +accto find
fisks   n. m.Afish
frabugjan   v. I weak  +datto sell
fraíhnan   v. V ablaut  +gento ask
fráiw   n. n.Aseed
frakunnan   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +datto despise
fraliusan   v. II ablaut  +datto lose
fraqiman   v. IV ablaut  +datto expend
fraþi   n. n.JAunderstanding
fraþjan   v. VI ablaut  +datto understand
freis   adj  +genfree
frijaþwa   n. f.Olove
froþs   adjwise
fugls   n. m.Abird
fulgins   adjhidden
fullatojis   adjperfect
fulljan   v. I weak  +gento fill
fullnan   v. IV weak  +gento become full
fulls   adj. s.aj  +genfull
gaggan   v. VII redup  intrto go
gahráinjan   v. I weak  +gento cleanse
gáidw   n. n.Awant
gaírnjan   v. I weak  +gento be fain or willing
galáubjan   v. I weakto believe
galeiks   adj  +datlike
garūni   n. n.JAconsultation
gaþarbān   v. III weak  +gento suffer want
gáumjan   v. I weak  +datto perceive
gáurs   adjsad
gawaírþi   n. n.JApeace
gawi   n. n.JAregion
gawiljis   adjwilling
giba   n. f.Ogift
giban   v. V ablautto give
goþs   adj  +datgood
graba   n. f.Oditch
gras   n. n.Agrass
gredags   adjhungry
gretan   v. VII red.abl.  intrto weep
groba   n. f.Oden
gulþ   n. n.Agold
gulþeins   adjgolden
Gutrazda   n. f.OGothic language
háiljan   v. I weak  +gento heal
háils   adjwhole
haírdeis   n. m.JAshepherd
halja   n. f.Ohell
handugs   adjclever
harjis   n. m.JAarmy
háubiþ   n. n.Ahead
haúrn   n. n.Ahorn
háusjan   v. I weakto hear
hawi   n. n.JAhay
hilpan   v. III ablaut  +gento help
himins   n. m.Aheaven
hláifs   n. m.Aloaf
hláiw   n. n.Agrave
hlūtrs   adjpure
hulþs   adj  +datgracious
hunds   n. m.Adog
huzd   n. n.Atreasure
ƕáiteis   n. m.JAwheat
ƕeila   n. f.Otime
ibns   adjeven
ik   pronI
im   v  intrI am
in   prep. +datin
is   v  intrthou art
ist   vis
itan   v. V ablautto eat
  conjbut
jah   conjand
jer   n. n.Ayear
juggs   adjyoung
juk   n. n.Ayoke
kalds   adjcold
kara   n. f.Ocare
karkara   n. f.Oprison
kaúrn   n. n.Agrain
kniu   n. n.Aknee
kukjan   v. I weak  +datto kiss
kunþi   n. n.JAknowledge
kunþs   adj  +datknown
laggs   adjlong
láiba   n. f.Oremnant
láisareis   n. m.JAteacher
lamb   n. n.Alamb
lasiws   adjweak
lats   adjslothful
láufs   n. m.Aleaf
láun   n. n.Apay
láus   adj. aj.s  +genempty
leik   n. n.Abody
leitils   adjlittle
lekeis   n. m.JAphysician
lew   n. n.Aoccasion
libān   v. III weak  intrto live
ligan   v. V ablaut  intrto lie
ligrs   n. m.Abed
liufs   adj  +datdear
ludja   n. f.Oface
mahteigs   adjmighty
mahts   adjpossible
máiþms   n. m.Agift
manags   adjmuch
maúrgins   n. m.Amorning
maúrþr   n. n.Amurder
midjis   adj. s.ajmiddle
mikils   adjgreat
modags   adj  +datangry
mota   n. f.Ocustom
motareis   n. m.JAtoll-taker
mulda   n. f.Odust
nati   n. n.JAnet
neþla   n. f.Oneedle
ni   advnot
nidwa   n. f.Orust
niman   v. IV ablautto take
nist   v= ni ist
niþjis   n. m.JAkinsman
niujis   adjnew
niun   num. aj.inine
niutan   v. II ablaut  +gento enjoy
qiman   v. IV ablaut  intrto come
qiþan   v. V ablaut  +accto say
qius   adjalive
ragineis   n. m.JAcounsellor
raíhts   adjright
razda   n. f.Olanguage
razn   n. n.Ahouse
reiki   n. n.JArule
riqis   n. n.Adarkness
riqizeins   adjdark
rūna   n. f.Osecret
sa   pronthis
saian   v. VII red.abl.to sow
saíhs   num. aj.isix
saíƕan   v. V ablaut  +accto see
sáiwala   n. f.Osoul
salt   n. n.Asalt
saþs   adjfull
saúrga   n. f.Osorrow
sibun   num. aj.iseven
sifān   v. III weak  intrto rejoice
siggwan   v. III ablautto sing
silubr   n. n.Asilver
sineigs   adjold
sinteins   adjdaily
siponeis   n. m.JApupil
sitan   v. V ablaut  intrto sit
sitls   n. m.Aseat
siuks   adjsick
skalks   n. m.Aservant
skip   n. n.Aship
skulds   adj  +datowing
slepan   v. VII redup  intrto sleep
smals   adjsmall
snáiws   n. m.Asnow
snutrs   adjwise
so   pronthe (f.)
stáins   n. m.Astone
standan   v. VI ablaut  intrto stand
staua   n. f.Ojudgement
stibna   n. f.Ovoice
sums   pron(indefinite) someone
sunja   n. f.Otruth
sunjis   adjtrue
swarts   adjblack
sweiban   v. I ablaut  intrto cease
swers   adj  +dathonored
swikunþs   adj  +datmanifest
swinþs   adjstrong
tagl   n. n.Ahair
tagr   n. n.Atear
taíhun   num. aj.iten
taui   n. n.JAdeed
táujan   v. I weak  +accto do
tekan   v. VII red.abl.  +datto touch
þande   conjif
þata   pronthat
þaúrban   v. pret-pres. III abl.  +gento need
þeihan   v. I ablaut  intrto thrive
þiubi   n. n.JAtheft
þiuda   n. f.Opeople
þiudans   n. m.Aking
þius   n. m.Aservant
þreis   num. 3three
þū   pronthou
tils   adjfit
triu   n. n.Atree
twái   num. 2two
ubils   adjevil
ubiltojis   adjevil-doing
ufarmeli   n. n.JAsuperscription
ufháusjan   v. I weak  +datto submit
unkunþs   adj  +datunknown
unsibjis   adjlawless
unte   conjuntil
unweis   adj. aj.sunlearned
uskiusan   v. II ablaut(+acc) to choose out
wadi   n. n.JApledge
waírpan   v. III ablaut  +acc/datto throw
waírþan   v. III ablaut  intrto become
waírþs   adj  +genworthy
wakan   v. VI ablaut  intrto wake
waldufni   n. n.JApower
wamba   n. f.Obelly
wans   adj  +genlacking
waúrd   n. n.Aword
waúrms   n. m.Aserpent
waúrstw   n. n.Awork
weihan   v. I ablautto fight
weihs   adjholy
wein   n. n.Awine
wenjan   v. I weakto hope
wigs   n. m.Away
wilþeis   adjwild
winds   n. m.Awind
wisan   v. V ablaut  intrto be
wiþrawaírþo   adv  +datcontrariwise
wiþrawaírþs   adj  +datopposite
wulfs   n. m.Awolf
 

Unit 5

5.1) Masculine JA-Stem Nouns

Some a-declension nouns and adjectives have a stem that ends in -ja or -wa. If the stem ends in -ja, then it matters whether the word is a long-stem or short-stem noun/adjective. The rules for long and short stems are a little complex, but fortunately it is easy to tell long-stem words apart from short-stem because the nominative singular (nom. masc. sing. in the case of adjectives) of long-stems ends in -eis. For example, andeis (end):

Singular
Nom andeis end (subject)
Voc Acc andi end (direct object)
Gen andeis of an end
Dat andja to/for an end
Plural
Nom andjōs ends (subject)
Voc Acc andjans ends (direct object)
Gen andjē of ends
Dat andjam to/for ends

Some other nouns declined like andeis are:

asneis servant
aúrkeis cup, jug
bōkareis scribe
faúra-maþleis ruler, prince
haírdeis herdsman
ƕáiteis wheat
láisareis teacher
lēkeis physician
mōtareis toll taker
ragineis counsellor
sipōneis disciple

Short-stem nouns decline like harjis, army:

Singular
Nom harjis army (subj)
Voc Acc hari army (obj)
Gen harjis of an army
Dat harja to/for an army
Plural
Nom harjōs armies (subj)
Voc Acc harjans armies (obj)
Gen harjē of armies
Dat harjam to/for armies

Other nouns declined like harjis include andastaþjis (adversary) and niþjis (kinsman).

5.2) Neuter JA-Stem Nouns

Neuter nouns almost always follow the short stem declension: kuni (race), kunjis, kunja; plural kunja, kunjē, kunjam. Also declined this way are:

andbahti service, ministry
arbi heritage
badi bed
faírguni mountain
fastubni observance
fraþi understanding
garūni counsel
gawaírþi peace
gawi region, district (stem gáuj-)
hawi hay (stem háuj-)
kunþi knowledge
nati net
reiki power
taui deed, work (stem tōj-)
þiubi theft
ufar-mēlisuperscription
wadi pledge
waldufni power

In an earlier stage of the language, neuters preserved the distinction of short and long stems, and a few words do have both forms side by side, such as andbahti gen. sing. andbahteis or andbahtjis; gawaírþi gen. sing. gawaírþeis, gawaírþjis.

5.3) JA-Stem Adjectives

For adjectives, the long stem forms are:

Masc
Nom wilþeis hundswild dog (subject)
Acc wilþjana hund wild dog (direct object)
Gen wilþeis hundis of a wild dog
Dat wilþjamma hunda to/for a wild dog
Fem
Nom wilþi haírda wild herd (subject)
Acc wilþja haírda wild herd (direct object)
Gen wilþjáizōs haírdōs of a wild herd
Dat wilþjái haírdái to/for a wild herd
Neut
Nom/Acc wilþjata gras wild grass
Gen wilþeis grasis of wild grass
Dat wilþjamma grasa to/for wild grass

Here, wilþjata is the pronominal form which is never used predicatively. Its nominal form is wilþi, e.g. þata gras ist wilþi (the grass is wild). The genitive wilþeis is the more likely form, but based on comparative linguistics it's possible that the genitive is wilþjis. Since no neuter genitive singulars are attested of these adjectives, it is not possible to be certain.

In the plural, these adjectives decine the same as pure a-stem adjectives such as mikils: wilþjái, wilþjans, wilþjáizē, etc.

Other adjectives declined like wilþeis include:

aírzeis astray
alþeis old
faírneis old
wōþeis sweet, kind

For short stem adjectives, we have the example of aljis, other:

Singular:
Masc
Nom aljis wigs other way (subj)
Acc aljana wig other way (obj)
Gen aljis wigis of another way
Dat aljamma wiga to/for another way
Fem
Nom alja aƕa other river (subj)
Acc alja aƕa other river (obj)
Gen aljáizōs aƕōs of another river
Dat aljái aƕái to/for another river
Neut
Nom Acc aljata barn other child
Gen aljis barnis of another child
Dat aljamma barna to/for another child

Plurals are decined the same as mikils: aljái, aljans, aljáizē, etc. Adjectives declined like aljis include:

fullatōjis perfect
gawiljis willing
midjis middle
niujis new
sunjis true
ubiltōjis evildoing
unsibjislawless

Additionally, freis (free) has the nom. masc. sing. of a long-stem but is declined like a short-stem: frijana, frijis, frijamma, etc.

5.4) WA-Stem Nouns

Wa-stem nouns are declined the same as plain a-stems, but there is a rule that when the word would end with -iw or -iws, the spelling of iw changes to iu.

Masculine:
Singular
Nom þius servant (subj)
Voc Acc þiu servant (obj)
Gen þiwis of a servant
Dat þiwa to/for a servant
Plural
Nom þiwōs servants (subj)
Voc Acc þiwans servants (obj)
Gen þiwē of servants
Dat þiwam to/for servants
Neuter:
Singular
NVA kniu knee
Gen kniwis of a knee
Dat kniwa to/for a knee
Plural
NVA kniwa knees
Gen kniwē of knees
Dat kniwam to/for knees

Few nouns are declined in this way: masc. snáiws (snow) is declined snáiws, snáiw, snáiwis, snáiwa, etc; neut. triu (wood) is declined the same as kniu. Some neuter nouns such as fráiw (seed) retain the w in the n.v.a. singular, and are otherwise declined like waúrd; these include:

gáidw want, lack
hláiw grave
lēw occasion
waúrstw work (as in a thing one has created)

5.5) WA-Stem Adjectives

Wa-stem adjectives are poorly attested but probably are declined like the nouns. In the masculine singular: fáus (small), fáu, fawis, fawamma, and the other numbers and genders the same as mikils but with the stem faw-. It's probable that qius (alive) is similarly declined (qius, qiu, qiwis, qiwamma; stem qiw-) but none of these forms are attested. We do however have attested lasiws (weak) where we would have expected *lasius. This might represent a grammatical oddity or might simply be a case of the scribe misspelling it.

5.6) Verbs Governing the Genitive

Some verbs take their direct and/or indirect object in the genitive. These include:

brūkjan to use
fraíhnan to ask (a question) (both objects)
fulljan to fill (genitive of contents; either acc. or dat. of container)
fullnan to become full
gaírnjan to long for
ga-hráinjan to clean
ga-þarban to abstain from
háiljan to make whole
hilpan to help
niutan to enjoy
þaúrban to need (irregular; conjugation covered in unit 13.3)

Verbs ending in -jan often have their second and third person singular endings in -eis, -eiþ and second person plural in -eiþ, including all of the -jan verbs in the table above. In unit 9.3 we'll cover this class of verb in more detail.

5.7) Adjectives Governing the Genitive

Certain adjectives also govern the genitive, for example kunþjis fulls, full of knowledge. Here's a list:

filu much
freis free (from)
fulls full (of)
láus empty, devoid
waírþs worthy
wans lacking, wanting

One common use of filu is with a genitive to mean "a lot of" something, e.g. fiske filu, a great many fishes; manageins filu, a great multitude (see 11.3 for the declension of managei).

5.8) Examples of Material from This Unit

1. Hilpa þizē tōjē þis bōkareis untē nist fullatōjis. I help the work of the scribe because he is not perfect.
2. Gawiljana sipōni gawaírþi láisjiþ. S/he teaches peace to a willing disciple.
3. Barnisk ist stáinam waírpan du andastaþja. It's childish to throw stones at an adversary.
4. Farōs gaþarba in daga fullamma snáiwis. I am abstaining from travel in a day full of snow.
5. Gawaírþeis gaírneiþ in ƕeilái saúrgōs. S/he longs for peace in time of sorrow.
Translate from Gothic:
6. Þamma faúra-maþlja jah þamma andastaþja ist niujata fraþi.
7. Þata gawi ist fri þiubjis.
8. Fara du þamma lēkja in þamma maúrgina.
9. Sa snáiws ana þamma faírgunja ist kalds.
10. Ni sind wanái kunþjis þái raginjōs.

Answers

Translate into Gothic:
11. The physician is making sick children whole.
12. I enjoy new languages.
13. She fills the cup with wine.
14. He lies in a cold grave.
15. The army comes to the counsellor's district.

Answers



« Previous Lesson   Table of Contents   Next Lesson »


This site is copyright © 2016-2018 Julie Gagnon. You may download, store, print, and disseminate these lessons for educational use provided you do not charge a fee or any other remuneration. Additionally, lexical entries sourced from Wiktionary retain the same CC-BY-SA license as the original. All other rights reserved.
Background image: St. Joseph's Oratory, Montréal, QC.
The Hrabnaskufta font is licensed under the SIL Open Font License OFL-1.1.